MODULE 2: HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS AROUND THE GLOBE
Of all forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
When it comes to global health, there is no ‘them’… only ‘us’.
Global Health Council
MODULE 2 OBJECTIVES
At the completion of this module, the student will:
Identify healthcare systems of the United States and countries around the globe including delivery of health care, quality of care, health statistics, costs, financing, administration, human resources, demographic and epidemiological factors, and access and equity issues. (EVALUATION: Module 2 quiz)
Compare and contrast the U.S. healthcare system and a country that ranked high on the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) health care systems. (EVALUATION: Paper: Comparison of Health Care Systems: United States and [Selected Country]
MODULE 2 LEARNING ACTIVITIES
Chapter 5: An Introduction to Health Systems
Chapter 16: Working Together to Improve Global Health
Phillips, S. (2013). Selected global health-related & nursing organizations. NUR 4667 Nursing in global health systems. Online course. Nicole Wertheim College of Nursing & Health Sciences. Miami, FL: Florida International University.
CLICK on PDF file: GLOBAL HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS
Phillips, S. (2013). Selected United States health-related & nursing organizations. NUR 4667 Nursing in global health systems. Online course. Nicole Wertheim College of Nursing & Health Sciences. Miami, FL: Florida International University.
CLICK on PDF file: US HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS
Choose one (1) country from the following list. These countries ranked high on the WHO overall healthcare system rankings:
Oman Austria Japan Norway Portugal Iceland
For assistance on searching for information about your selected country, see Module 1 (Term Paper Assignment instructions). For the U.S. healthcare system and health care reform, use the following references to find information (the references below are in APA format and can be cited in your paper):
Chua, K. (2006, February 10). Overview of the U.S. healthcare system. Retrieved from http://www.stritch.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/IPM/ipm3/BPandJ/HealthCareSystemOverview -AMSA%2020062_25_09.pdf
Article is a little old (2006), but a concise summary of U.S. healthcare system.
Shay, P., & Schumacher, E. (2014). U.S. health care delivery: An overview. San Antonio, TX: Trinity University.
(CLICK on POWERPOINT file: US HEALTH CARE OVERVIEW
A more recent (2014) PowerPoint presentation, includes tables and statistics on U.S. health.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2015, July 17). FastStats: How healthy are we? Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/healthy.htm
Up-to-date U.S. health statistics from the CDC.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). (2011). Disparities in healthcare quality among racial and ethnic groups: Selected findings from the 2011 National Healthcare Quality and Disparity reports. Retrieved from http://archive.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr10/minority.html
Provides tables/statistics on inequity/inequality health care issues among U.S. racial/ethnic groups.
Jackson, J., & Nolen, J. (2010, March 21). Health care reform summary: A look at what’s in the act. New York: CBS News. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/health-care-reform-bill-summary-a-look-at-whats-in-the-bill/
or (CLICK on the PDF file: HEALTH CARE REFORM) Provides a concise summary of the Affordable Care Act.
You MUST use the following major headings to compare the U.S. and your country. To organize the content of your paper for the “comparison” discussions, you MUST use the level heading titles & positions that are found at the end of this module. These level heading titles & positions are in APA format.
PAPER HEADING: Introduction Selection of country (name of country and reason for choice). See module readings for U.S. health care system information.
PAPER HEADING: Health Statistics and Costs Address the following: 1) life expectancies; 2) mortality rates; 3) major health conditions/diseases; 4) health care expenditure ($) per capita as ratio of total population; and 5) health care expenditure (% of gross domestic product) for U.S. and your country? See module readings. Discuss.
PAPER HEADING: Health Care Financing Address the following: How is health care financed for its citizens [employed, low income, elderly, uniformed personnel, veterans)
—through public sector [taxes] or the private sector [personal or employer] or a combination of both? How are the funds (private & public) collected? If a combination of financing, what are the percentages of private/public? Include the new U.S. Affordable Care Act. See module readings. Discuss.
PAPER HEADING: Health Care Administration Address the following: Which government agencies (major agency and assisting agencies) oversee and regulate the provision of health care for its citizens (populations)? What are their missions/functions/purposes? Example: Ministry of Health. For U.S. agencies, see module readings for list and functions of U.S. health-related organizations. Discuss.
PAPER HEADING: Human Resources Address the following: What are the total numbers and/or number (per 100,000 population) of 1) nurses; 2) physicians; and 3)
hospitals/hospital beds? Discuss.
PAPER HEADING: Conclusion: Access and Equity Issues Address the following: Does the country have citizens/populations who are uninsured, underinsured, and/or experience health disparities? Which citizens or populations (i.e, ethnic, income, and/or immigrant groups)? See module readings. Discuss.
Repeat the title of paper [centered] at top of page 2:
Comparison of Health Care Systems: United States and Iceland
Introduction [Level 1] (centered)
Discussion begins…. (paragraph[s] form of at least two sentences
Health Statistics and Costs [Level 2] (flush left)
A short paragraph (at least two sentences) to introduce the topic sub-headings you are going to discuss in this section. For example: “The discussion below provides information about and compares the health statistics and costs of the United States and Iceland. Health statistics include life expectancies and mortality rates, major health conditions and diseases, health care expenditure dollars ($) per capita, and health care expenditure as a percentage (%) of gross domestic product (GDP).”
United States. [Level 3] Level 3 heading is indented with period, only first word is capitalized (unless a proper noun), discussion begins immediately after heading….
Iceland. [Level 3] Discussion begins….
Comparison of countries. [Level 3] Discussion begins…
Health Care Financing [Level 2] (flush left)
A short paragraph (at least two sentences) to introduce the topic sub-headings you are going to discuss in this section. See above for example.
United States. [Level 3] Level 3 heading is indented with period, only first word is
capitalized (unless a proper noun), discussion begins immediately after heading….
Iceland. [Level 3] Discussion begins….
Comparison of countries. [Level 3] Discussion begins… and so on to complete the paper topics……
Conclusion: Access and Equity Issues [Level 1] (centered)
Discussion begins…. (paragraph[s] form)
References [Level 1] (new page, centered)
Paper: Comparison of U.S. & Other Country Health System (100 pts)
Introduction; Comparison of: Health Statistics and Costs; Health Care Financing; Healthcare
Administration; Human Resources; Conclusion: Access and Equity Issues
Critical Thinking Skills (15 pts); Content Development (15 pts); Organization (15 pts) References (15 pts); Format (15 pts); Computer/Technology Skills (25 pts)