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The election of 1796 was an American presidential election and the only one that gave room to elect a president and vice president from opposing tickets. It took place from Friday, November 4 to Wednesday, December 7, 1796. The election came after George Washington refused a third term in office. It was during this election in which political parties competed for the presidency. The election resulted in John Adams winning the presidential seat and was sworn as the President. On the other hand, Jefferson Thomas had 68 electoral votes and was elected as vice president.
One of the issues that arose during this election is that its campaign used mudslinging, which involved the use of accusations and insults to weaken the reputation of an opponent. New York newspaper, for instance, said that Federalists who included Adams were to turn out nation into a monarchy. He was also accused of acting superior to the common man. The other Philadelphia newspaper claimed that Thomas Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican candidate, had an affair with a slave. He was also said to have been a coward during the revolution of America.
The American presidential election of 1800 led to Thomas Jefferson, the vice president defeating the then President John Adams. It le to ushering in of a Republican party rule and led to less power to Federalists party in the First Party System. It was a bitter rematch of the 1796 election between President Adams and Jefferson.
Marbury versus Madison was a supreme court US case. The case was between President John Adams and the incoming President Thomas Jefferson. The case gave rise to judicial review in the United States, which gave power to American courts to show that it had the power to strike down statutes, laws, and some government actions that violate the US constitution. It also gave powers to the Supreme Court as the final adjudicator of the constitution and the right to proclaim acts of congress as unconstitutional. On the other hand, Fletcher versus Peck gave court powers to void laws of the states. It reinforces Marbury v Madison since it highlighted the Supreme Court that it had the ability to bring down the state law as unconstitutional.
One of the greatest events that occurred during Jefferson’s tenure was the purchase of Louisiana. This was considered the biggest achievement because the United States almost doubled in size. This event was also important because, with the purchase of it, there would be no chance of war with France. The acquisition also led to a vast region, including the existing 15 states. Another great event was Lewis Clarke Expedition, whereby Jefferson send an expedition under Lewis and Clarke. The group had to travel to survey the purchased Louisiana land. The greatest benefit is that the US Government came to know what it had purchased.
Market revolution was a subsequent gradual change where many Americans who initially lived in the countryside and worked as small scale farmers or skilled artisans moved to cities and worked in factories. Market society, on the other hand, meant that market values were absorbed into every aspect of human life. Cities grew majorly as a result of industrialization. Industrialization led to the rise of cities because it created economic growth and job opportunities that attracted people to cities to work as laborers. Factories change from small-scale to large –scale domestic manufacturing. Factories also concentrated in the North, and they are less dependent on foreign imports, which led to an increase in the cost of labor.
Irish and Germans were the largest portion of Immigrant groups in the United States. The two groups migrated between the 1820s to 1840s. The two groups were majorly subjected to discrimination and prejudice. Nativism referred to an act of favoring the original inhabitants as compared to immigrants. Nativism flourished because nativist immigration legislation was adopted to protect the interests of residents rather than the interests of immigrants. Nativism also flourished because of strict legislation that was to regulate immigration. One of the immigration laws was the Emergency Immigration Act formulated in 1921.
Transcendentalism refers to the idea that women and men have full knowledge about themselves and the world surrounding them that goes beyond what they can feel, see, hear, or touch. One of the elements is self-reliance which was written by philosopher Essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson that state that each individual have to avoid false consistency and conformity and follow his or her own instincts and believes. The second element is free thought; this is an element that argues that it is God’s voice that has the power to control in individuals and make them have desires to act in their own world.
Transcendentalists focus on ideas of optimism and freedom while second great awakening focuses on personal salvation and individual democracy; the emphasis here is on individualism. Mormonism was a branch of saint cultural and religious movement that emerged in 1800. The major unique feature here is that it was not only a Christian denomination but a religious tradition. One of the controversial issues here is that it was viewed as an isolated, bizarre, self-contained, and isolated religious group that was parallel to US mainstream society. It also led to social changes in America.
Tocqueville was an aristocrat, historian, and political scientist in France. He believed that equality was the greatest virtue during the social and political era. He argued that the United States gave the greatest and most admirable equality action. He observed that the United States was not like France because it had developed an effective, viable democracy. He asks for the reasons for that kind of leadership that he would later use to the European States. One of the aspects of the information revolution is the increasing role of technology in the information. Another feature is the increasing role of social, economic, and technology of information.
Limits to democracy were witnessed on the way laborers were treated. Most of them were turned into slaves, and they could not enjoy their rights. The political and industrial rights of these people were changed during a war. For a nation to be democratic, it should consist of wholly free men. Therefore, this is a clear indication that there were limits to democracy in America until slavery as abolished. Another example is the struggle of men for industrial freedom. This is evidenced in the history of the franchise.
The American system was a rule of reinforcing the development of the industry by improving internal movements and the adoption of protective tariffs that are high by the federal government. It was of great significance because it helped the nation to grow.In 1819 there was major three major cause of panic one of them was public debt from the war of 1812, inflation and purchase of Louisiana.During this economic crisis, it was caused by attempted changes to American financial laws that led Southern Sectionalism that led to the rise of the American Civil War.
Missouri compromise as legislation by the federal government that allowed Maine State as a free one with Missouri being a slave state. The act was done to balance the power between the South and North parts of the US senate. It was controversial because people were worried that the country had been divided in a lawful way along sectional lines. To solve the slave question, a compromise was done whereby Louisiana, the purchased land, was divided into two. Missouri was given authority to join the union without restriction as slavery while Maine was admitted as a free state, and yet slavery was prohibited. The two changes led to the balancing of powers between Free states and slave states. The compromise failed to solve the future issue of slavery.It failed to permanently reduce the tension caused by the slavery issue.This went along in changing how the nation eventually divided along economic,territorial, and ideological lines 4o years after the civil war.
1828 election as the most vital event that led to the rise of a new era of political campaigns and strong political parties. Unlike in the previous elections of 1824, the current elections were decided by voters, and public opinion was becoming famous. There were two candidates that is Andrew Jackson and John Adams.1828 elections were different from those of 1824 were won by Jackson through plurality vote, but Adam won through the house of a representative where he on through the contingent election. Jackson won the 1828 election, which led to a rise in democracy. The significance of this election is that it removed barriers to participation by voters and the rise of the two-party system.
John C. Calhoun supported a famous US spokesman who helped in steering the United States into Great Britain. He supported the idea of nullification through the agreement of the majority. It meant that the state had the right to invalidate or nullify any law of federalism that seems unconstitutional. The root cause of the nullification crisis was the enactment of protective tariffs, which were perceived unconstitutional by People from the North. Led by John Calhoun ‘South Carolina Exposition and Protest ‘was created to nullify imposed tariffs. Nullification ignited tension between South and North, which were sectional tensions. Tariffs of 1832 and 1828 were declared unenforceable and unconstitutional in South Carolina.Therefore attempt to use force to collect taxes would lead to its secession. This was because of the Southern part dependent on the North for manufactured goods. Resistance by states finally led to civil war. The nullification crisis was solved when Henry clay compromised with Calhoun that slowly lowered tariffs.The compromise of 1833 was finally accepted by South Carolina, which ended the nullification crisis.
Slave culture is an act of denying victims the right to their native cultural identity. Slaves were expected to abandon their cultural heritage and adopt the culture of their enslavers.An example of a slave culture is the one in Colonial North America. The slaves were expected to adopt North American cultures and leave their own native culture. Many a time’s slaves resisted their masters. Some of the slaves escaped and hide in the nearby forests, visit a relative or spouse. While other sabotaged tools or work product. Some also rebelled. Gospel of freedom was a startling perspective by an angry prophet who chastised American whites, found solace in the resilience and faith of the slaves. The prophet learned that there was no moral appeal without a struggle to get justice.
Utopian communities were groups formed purposely for religious purposes. These communities were Oneida, Shaker, and Owenite sub-communities. On the Shaker communities, it holds belief inequality where women were outnumbered, men. These community aimed at self-sufficiency, the community believed in perfectionism where people were expected to be free and perfect from sin. Perfection was expected between the relationship between men and women.Owenite communities, on the other hand, wanted to promote cooperatives.The community failed because it agitated for equality and perfection, which are difficult to achieve.
The prime cause of the Mexican war as westward expansion in the United States. Americans believed that they had the absolute right to expand their territories westwards. It was also caused by the disputed Texas border and expansion of slavery by America. AbrahamLincoln was one of the greatest harshest critics of the war. He criticized it because he considered that it was a tactic to expand slavery if the US obtain new territories due to Mexican defeat. After the war, the US added 1.2 million miles, which kept California and NewMexico. After the war, many miners rushed to for Gold in California, which led to huge profits but great destruction of landscape. The indigenous inhabitants were displaced, and the land was destroyed because of mud.
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the US. He kept the US union during the American Civil war. He reinforced the federal government and modernized the US economy.1860 election war was sprouted because of the four strong candidates who competed for the presidency. When Lincoln was elected, he opposed slavery in its territories, which led to war. Abraham issued powers for reconstruction where Southern states were to be allowed to join US union if only they would abolish slavery.
During the civil war, a number of new technologies were used to enhance effectiveness in war. One of them is the telegraph, which had been invented in1844.During this war, telegraph cables were laid purposely for the military. Railroads also were used, the railroads could move people and supplies very first. Moreover,there was aerial reconnaissance, which employed the use of hot air balloons, which were used to alert commanders on the ground about attackers’ movements.The Northside had a unique advantage because they had infrastructure that was superior to approximately 20000 miles of track and also better equipment and their own locomotive factory. Trains allowed soldiers to be moved together with armaments.
The fight on the Eastern Front was brutal and terrible since both ends fought with a lot of furies. Mass rapes and beheadings occurred more frequently. The Eastern front had troops from Austria, Hungary, Russia,Turkey, and Austria-Hungary, which was larger compared to the western part. The western war was less severe compared to the Eastern war.
The civil war had enormous impacts on the confederate government of the US. The government lost billions of money in funding war. A lot of resources were mobilized to organize the fight, and resources were shifted from consumer production to production of war equipment.
To erect reconstruction, three types were incorporated, which include Johnson Reconstruction, Lincoln Reconstruction, and congressional re-constructional plan that were harmonized to create a radical reconstruction of civil rights. Radicalreconstruction referred to a change that created good opportunities for African-Americans like the right to vote, ownership of property, and even the right to hold a political office. This construction led to the abolition of the slave trade and gave black Americans equal rights under US law. The Southern part resisted because they felt threatened through legislation to give civil rights to their former slaves.
Foner, E. (2017). Give Me Liberty! An American History: One Volume. WW Norton & Company.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. The can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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