Due April 1, by 2pm latest
1100 words in length (~3 pages, double-spaced)
let me know the topic you chose the day i assign you this essay so that i can upload required readings given during that week that can help
The purpose of the Short Essay assignment is to develop your critical reading, thinking, and writing skills, and your ability to identify relevant sources on a chosen topic.
You will learn to critically and concisely synthesize several sources and effectively write a short essay.
Step 1 – Identify a topic from the course schedule – for example, Refugees: The Canadian Experience (topic from week 10 in the course schedule Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons).
Stay in boundaries of the topics!
Choose a topic that interests you.
Step 2 – Identify relevant sources (3 articles/chapters and 1 internet source)
The articles/chapters you select must be of standard academic length (minimum of 6000 words) from reliable sources (e.g., academic journals, academic textbooks).
The internet source you select may include: on-line newspaper article, NGO website, YouTube video, blog, and so on.
Again, make sure you think critically about your choice for the internet source.
Refugees are migrants who are forced to escape their home countries to evade immediate and severe threats to their well-being and safety. During refugee resettlement, the inclusion and participation of newcomers in a community entails the concept of social integration, which means equitable access to real outcomes like securing employment. Canada boasts of a strong reputation globally as the world leader in refugee intake and immigration, as well as a stronghold of multiculturalism. Although Canada admits a significant chunk of refugees annually, these migrants are often compelled to live in disadvantage and poverty on arriving in Canada. Accordingly, this essay examines the refugee situation in Canada with a particular focus on the economic integration of the migrants as pertains to securing work for them. It also highlights the experiences of women who seek refuge in Canada, and the challenges they go through.
Hyndman and Hynie (2016) suggest that securing employment is a critical indicator of the success of integration. Nevertheless, evidence reveals that refugees report higher rates of unemployment as compared to their Canadian-born counterparts; females face even worse prospects of getting employed than their male peers (Hyndman and Hynie, 2016). Despite entering Canada with high expectations to find appropriate employment, refugees find themselves unable to get any job within the labor market in the country. According to Endicott (2017), only ten percent of refugees get employed within their first six months in Canada. Years after their arrival, their employment rate remains as low as forty percent. Regrettably, unemployment continues to be an issue for refugees for the rest of their stay in Canada since the employment rate is not in any way correlated to the length of one’s stay in the country.
Unfortunately, the few refugees that manage to secure jobs in Canada are concentrated in highly insecure and low skilled work that do not match their previous job experiences or educational credentials. Accordingly, they often experience downward mobility as most of them are not able to land jobs outside of precarious work – employment with low income, inadequate protection of workers, weak regulation, little autonomy, and low job security (Jackson and Bauder, 2014). Refugees also encounter greater obstacles including language barriers (Jackson and Bauder, 2014). Additionally, a significant percentage of refugees arrive in Canada with limited literacy skills due to their scantly formal education (Hyndman and Hynie, 2016).
The authors of the articles reviewed all suggest the importance of employment in conferring a sense of belonging to the refugees in Canada. Therefore, encouraging employment for refugees as soon as possible may enhance the successful integration of migrants at various levels. It is also imperative to note the adverse effects of perennially low income. These include increased risks of homelessness, as a majority find themselves incapable of paying rent after the periods of federal funding elapse. Refugees in Canada are likely to get trapped in a vicious poverty cycle as they cannot afford the high costs of professional training and education, which characteristically offer the best path out of poverty.
Canada takes in refugees for the purposes of permanent resettlement and brags of being the first country internationally to come up with gender-sensitive frameworks to resettle women at high risk of harm. However, Boyd (2018) shows that women are not adequately represented in the humanitarian-based influxes of migrants into Canada. Besides, their appeals for status as principal applicants are likely to be turned down (Boyd, 2018). Women who seek refuge in Canada experience various challenges, among them fewer employment opportunities as compared to their male counterparts. Following the cuts made to the Interim Federal Health Program, a majority of the refugees have been left with no coverage for essential healthcare services. These cuts have left expectant women facing enormous bills for pre- and postnatal care, as well as profound anxiety about delivering themselves in places devoid of appropriate medical care. Concerns have also been raised by women refugees about the prolonged resettlement processing in specific regions. As such, they are compelled to stay put under very perilous conditions, in which they are at a significant risk of sexual assault.
The conditional permanent residence introduced by the federal government in 2012 has been reported to make women refugees more vulnerable to power imbalances in their relationships leading to an increased likelihood of domestic feuds (Goldring and Landolt, 2013). Despite the exception for sponsored partners in cases of neglect or abuse, there are several constraints to accessing this exemption. Women who are part of the low-skilled team in the Temporary Foreign Worker Program face imminent exploitation and abuse including trafficking (Strauss and McGrath, 2017). Even though the Canadian Experience Class guarantees permanent employment to some workers, evidence has it that women are less likely to access the class.
The literature reviewed for this segment contributes to the conclusion that women refugees encounter significant challenges both with social and economic integration in Canada. The policies in the country have not done any good to alleviate the situation of these women. Instead, it is apparent that the federal government continues to formulate policies that curtail the fundamental freedoms and rights of the migrants. Girls and women are at the highest risk of human trafficking, and the more Canada creates policies that hinder their access to status, the more vulnerable they become. Even though efforts have been made to review these policies, no significant amendments have been made to guarantee trafficked girls and women protection.
The authors of the readings reviewed for this paper support their arguments by quoting statistical data drawn from relevant Canadian agencies to create a vivid picture of the refugee experiences in the country. Additionally, some of them have included direct interview responses from various refugees interviewed. As such, their arguments come out stronger and more substantial. I agree with what the authors posit. However, most of them looked at refugees independently from the rest of the immigrants in Canada. Therefore, it was unclear whether the issues they raised were only experienced by refugees or were common to all immigrants, whether economic or traditional. Imperatively, it would be better to make comparisons so that the seriousness of the refugees’ concerns is better appreciated. High unemployment rates and gender discrimination are not just the reserve of refugees in Canada. Almost all countries that admit refugees battle with these problems and very many states cannot guarantee jobs and gender equality to their citizens. To this effect, the experiences of refugees in Canada only depict the untold misery that refugees in other parts of the world undergo.
Despite being a world leader in refugee admittance, Canada still faces various challenges stemming from its policies. The successful integration of the migrants is curtailed by the high rate of unemployment among the refugees and the precarious working conditions for the few individuals who manage to get jobs. Besides, women who seek refuge in Canada go through various predicaments including discrimination and vulnerability to all forms of abuse. In as much as Canada has instituted gender-sensitive policies, more work needs to be done to ensure that these migrants feel more at home. The situation in Canada is not an isolated case but it suffices as an example of the challenges faced by refugees on their arrival in foreign lands.
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