Order ID 53563633773 Type Essay Writer Level Masters Style APA Sources/References 4 Perfect Number of Pages To Order 5-10 Pages
Thesis Statement: Research suggests that standardized testing should be banned because it creates undue student stress, it does not take into account students cultural and economic diversity, and it forces teachers to teach to the test.
Reference Minnesota Council of Teachers of English (2007). Minnesota English Journal. Retrieved from URL https://www.academia.edu/download/30923166/mej07.pdf#page=53 Summary: The journal explains how standardized test cause stress in children as young as eight years old. It explains how the test causes sleep deprivation, exhaustion, and anxiety. These students tend to act out as it is perceived that a low-test score will result in negative repercussions. Credibility: It is a journal that is published twice a year, for the past 46 years, authored by educators in the state of Minnesota. It is also affiliated with the National Council of Teachers of English and a participant in the Information Exchange Agreement. Relevance: It ties into one of the points in my thesis statement how standardized tests cause undue stress. It also shows some of the symptoms of the incurred stress.
Reference Citation Segool, N. K., Carlson, J. S., Goforth, A. N., von der Embse, N., & Barterian, J. A. (2013). Heightened Test Anxiety among Young Children: Elementary School Students’ Anxious Responses to High-Stakes Testing. Psychology in the Schools, 50(5), 489–499. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21689 Summary: The study shows as much as 30% of students in a class have some form of test stress or anxiety. This is because most of the instruction in the class is geared toward doing well on the standardized test. The results lead to decreased motivation and focus in class. Credibility: All the contributing writers are professors at the university level and have a doctorate degree in psychology. They also have extensive field research conducting observational studies in classrooms. Relevance: It shows how the tests effects a larger portion of a class than previously known. Also, it demonstrates how some of the behavior of the children changes. Students start losing focus and motivation because of the results of the test.
Reference Citation Mulvenon, S. W., Stegman, C. E., & Ritter, G. (2005). Test Anxiety: A Multifaceted Study on the Perceptions of Teachers, Principals, Counselors, Students, and Parents. International Journal of Testing, 5(1), 37–61. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327574ijt0501_4 Summary Demonstrates how doing poorly on the test the previous year effects students negatively. Their stress is increased tremendously for the upcoming test. These students usually have loss of sleep, anxiety, loss of focus, and behavioral issues as a result. Credibility: Sean Mulvenon has a Ph.D. in education and is a professor at the University of Nevada Las Vegas. Dr. Charles Stegman served as the dean of the University of Arkansas’ College of Education. Relevance: Illustrates how doing having done poorly on the previous years test could raise a student’s stress level significantly. While taking the test for the first time negatively puts pressure on the student, having done poorly on the test the previous year makes that stress worse.
Reference Citation Ford, D. Y., & National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. (2004). Intelligence Testing and Cultural Diversity: Concerns, Cautions, and Considerations. In National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. Summary: Explores standardized testing problems in culturally diverse communities. Delves into the “one size fits all” test may not take into account student diversity. It also does not take into account the economic struggle some of these schools may have. Credibility: Dr. Ford has written hundreds of articles and books on special education, gifted education, and multicultural/urban education. She is currently a professor at Ohio State University. Relevance It shows how the test does not take into account the cultural and economic diversity of the students taking the test. The students are usually at a distinct disadvantage.
Reference Citation Alford, B. J., Perreault, G., Zellner, L., Ballenger, J. W., & National Council of Professors of Educational Administration. (2011). Blazing New Trails: Preparing Leaders to Improve Access and Equity in Today’s Schools. The 2011 Yearbook of the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration. NCPEA Publications. Summary: It demonstrates how minority students have inadequate learning materials. These students are still expected to perform at the same level on standardized tests. It also covers the discrepancy of English as a second language (ELA) students have taking the test. Credibility: The author of the article, Dr. Christopher Tienken, is a professor of Education Administration at Seton Hall University. He has over 80 publications on the subject of education. Relevance: The article conveys how the standardized test is bias to economically challenged school districts. Most of these schools are usually in the inner city and have a diverse student demographic.
Reference Citation McNeil, L. M. (2000). Contradictions of school reform. educational costs of standardized testing. Routledge. Summary: The book speaks on the curriculum minimizing complex real-world application instruction to standardized testing teaching. It also does not allow educator to use their experience and insight to try and connect to the student’s own experiences. This would allow the child to confirm their involvement in the learning experience. Credibility: Linda McNeil serves as the director for the Center of Education at Rice University. She has also authored many scholarly articles and books on education. Relevance: As students are being taught to do well on a test, teachers are missing the chance to incorporate real-world value to their lessons.
Reference Citation Madaus, G. (2009). The Paradoxes of High Stakes Testing: How They Affect Students, Their Parents, Teachers, Principals, Schools, and Society. Information Age Publishing. Summary: The report brings up the question on does teaching to score high on the test actually improve student learning. It also touches on whether teaching to the test narrow the purview of a students all around education. This type of thinking may hamper higher order thinking aptitude. Credibility George Madaus is a renowned author on the subject of standardized testing. He received his PhD in education from Boston College. Relevance: As teachers are being pushed to teach to the test, is it really the best approach to teaching the students? Also, teachers are neglecting other beneficial subjects to narrow their curriculum to do better on standardized test.
Reference Citation Popham, W. J. (2001). Teaching to the test. Educational Leadership, 58(6), 16-20. Retrieved from URL http://olms.cte.jhu.edu/olms2/data/ck/file/TeachingtotheTest-Popham.pdf Summary Propham highlights some of the pitfalls to a test centered teaching curriculum. He also addresses how item-focused teaching to the test pushes aside other valuable subjects. The emphasis should be on a well-rounded student and not on a good test taker. Credibility: W. James Popham serves as an Emeritus Professor in the UCLA Graduate School of Education and Information Studies. He has spent the past 3 decades teaching classes in instructional methodology for teachers and graduate-level courses in evaluation and measurement of student performance. Relevance It ties into my third point in my thesis. Teaching centered on just the standardized test hurts the students by not teaching a well-rounded curriculum.
QUALITY OF RESPONSE NO RESPONSE POOR / UNSATISFACTORY SATISFACTORY GOOD EXCELLENT Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete. 50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing. Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment. Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors 10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free. Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. The can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
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