|Topic||adulthood trauma: what’s next|
I have attached a detailed series of instructions for my paper.
Instructions for my Paper: PLEASE READ ENTIRE DOCUMENT
Title of paper: experiential paper
INFORMATION BEING SUPPLIED: Attached are documents labeled: Literature review. Grading Rubric, AND Paper Layout.
The literature review is the framework for my paper and needs to be followed. There you’ll find the references of what the study is doing and information to fill in for the rest of the paper.
FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS:
Please make sure to only use the references on my literature review. The paper is to be written in past tense as if the study was completed already and the paper is being written after the fact and completed and all data has been collected and recorded.
we are writing an experiential paper for research methods two. I have already done the lit review and now need the method part and abstract. in the method part, I need to create a study that I have already done if you look at the last page of my lit review. I need to now explain how I conducted this study like the different materials and procedures with proper citations.
i have already started the materials/procedures section and need an additional 5 more pages.
if you read my review i am sure you can see where this paper needs to go.
here is the outline he told us we needed :
1.Abstract ( i need this)
under this heading i have completed the participants
i need the materials (devices used) (focused therapy and EMDRT) and instruments
the procedure section – number of participants that actually came, were any therapists involved (yes)
the environment, the intended analysis (IV or DV)
i need to write this section so someone can replicate the results if needed. whether or not i anticipate any extraneousvariables.
write about how i debriefed them… etc…
METHOD SECTION: I NEED YOU TO CREATE A STUDY BASED UPON MY LIT REVIEW …. PLEASE MAKE SURE YOU CITE ANY INFORMATION USED FROM INTERNET…. AND REFERENCE IT FROM MY REFERENCE PAGE ACCRODINGLY USING APA STYLE.THE STUDY NEEDS TO BE QUANTIFIABLE ALSO PLEASE
If the study you create needs to have my hypothesis changed no worries just change it accordingly…
ALSO MAKE SURE WHEN YOU REFER TO INFORMATION IN THE WRITING TO CITE THEM PROPERLY APA STYLE. Especially in the study if you do research cite where you got the info please!!
One-hundred and eighty participants, made up of college students from Florida International University (98.7%), workers (1.1%), and senior citizens (0.2%) were randomly selected to participate in this study. Of these 180 participants, 50.0% (N = 90) were male and 50.0% (N = 90) were female. Ages ranged from a minimum of 18 to a maximum of 65, with an average age of M = 25.88 years (SD = 7.46). Our sample population consisted of 64.4% Hispanic Americans (N = 116), 24.4% Caucasians (N = 44), 3.9% African Americans (N = 7), 3.9% Native Americans (N = 7), and 3.3% Others (N = 6).
Materials and Procedure
Materials utilized for the present study consisted of two-page (hard copy) questionnaires and pencils. Each questionnaire had the following parts: Part One-Anagram Task, Part Two- Study Perceptions, and Part Three-Demographic Information. Part One was made up of 20 (five-letter) anagrams, Part Two had six questions about the subjects’ reactions to the anagram task, and Part Three included six questions about the participants’ demographics. In Part Two, all questions except question 5 used a Likert-type rating scale with responses ranging from 1 to 9; question 5 had several discrete choices about the color ink recalled by the subject. One-third of the questionnaires provided the instructions to the participants in red-color ink, one-third had the instructions printed in green-color ink, and one-third had the instructions printed in black ink.
There were two phases in this study. In phase one, researchers approached various individuals (not family or friends) at different times and obtained their oral consent to participate in a research study. In observance of the uniform guidelines for informed consent, prospective subjects were notified of the potential risks and benefits of participating in the study before being presented with the research material. If the subject verbally consented to participate, the researcher moved to the next phase. In phase two, participants were randomly given one of three questionnaires: red, green and black.
In the first part of the study, participants were asked to follow the instructions at the top of the page. As soon as they finished reading the instructions printed in red, green, or black, they were reminded that they had three minutes to unscramble as many anagrams as they could (by forming a new word using all the original letters). A one-minute warning was given before time was up. Once they unscrambled as many of the 20 scrambled words as possible in the time limit provided, participants moved on to the next part.
In part two, participants completed six questions about the anagram task. The first four questions, as well as the sixth question, asked participants to circle the number that best represents their attitudes/perceptions on how their performance on the anagram task was. The responses to these questions were based on an interval scale from 1 (low) to 9 (high). For example, the first two questions asked how challenging the anagram task was for participants and others, respectively (1 = not at all challenging, 5 = somewhat challenging, 9 = extremely challenging). Question 3 asked how frustrating the anagram task was (ranging from 1 = not at all frustrating to 9 = very frustrating), question 4 asked participants to rate how they thought they did on the timed anagram task (ranging from 1 = very poorly to 9 = very well), and question 6 asked to what extent they thought the color of the ink influenced their anagram performance (1 = decreased, 5 = no effect, 9 = increased). Question 5 asked participants to recall the color of the text in which the anagram instructions were written. This question serves as a manipulation check for the study, since we want to ensure that participants were attentive to this aspect of the experiment. The responses to this question were based on a nominal scale (four color choices: red, green, black, blue).
The final part of the survey asked demographic information, including gender, age, ethnicity, language, whether participants were a student at Florida International University, and whether participants were colorblind. Participants were told that they were free to leave blank any questions they did not wish to answer in this part. At the conclusion of the study, each participant was debriefed regarding the color priming study, including color manipulation, main hypothesis, and correct responses.
After the experiment, the researchers scored each survey by counting the number of anagrams solved correctly within three minutes (scores ranged from 0 to 20). The researchers used that number as a continuous variable in the analysis involving ink color as the independent variable (with three levels) and number of anagrams correct as the dependent variable. It should be noted that although there are several dependent variables, the primary focus, corresponding to the hypotheses, are 1) number of anagrams correctly solved; 2) participants’ perception about how well they thought they did on the three-minute anagram task; and 3) the manipulation check regarding participants’ recall of the color of the text.
Adulthood Trauma: What’s next?
As humans, we are prone to all manner of trauma, and it is sometimes inevitable to choose the path that leads us to overcome the abuse we suffered as children. Imagine being a young child, and having the two people you care for most in the world exhibit toxic, violent behavior towards you. Would you not exhibit such behavior in adulthood? Research has found that children who have been physically abused in childhood have a higher chance of exhibiting abusive behavior in adulthood (Wright, Turanovic, O’Neal, Morse, & Booth, 2019). Apart from the possibility of adulthood abuse, physically abused children are more likely to experience a range of psychosocial problems, such as anxiety, distress, relationship problems, self-injury, victimization and PTSD (Wright, Turanovic, O’Neal, Morse, & Booth, 2019). However, studies have been conducted utilizing Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy (EMDRT) as an extended additive to reduce physical abuse in adults and help people who have suffered abuse to overcome trauma.(Greenwald, 2012). EMDRT is a research-supported psychotherapy approach designed to treat indications of post-traumatic stress disorder and trauma.(Greenwald, 2012). Each session follows a sequence of phases and eye movements to stimulate the brain to recall memories from the past, to help overcome any concerns or issues related to the past. The theory behind it was formulated by Dr. Francine Shapiro, a contemporary psychologist who earned her PhD in Clinical Psychology from the University of San Diego, California. (Greenwald, 2012). EMDRT helps recall memories that have not been fully processed due to their high sensitivity, and helps piece together fragmented memories so they can be more visual and less disruptive to life.
Contributing Factors and Theories
Over the coming generations, the cycle of violence has produced solid framework for studying the long-term criminogenic effects of children who have gone on to be victims of abuse. (Wright, Turanovic, O’Neal, Morse, & Booth, 2019). Some, but not all, victims will go on to lead a life of violence.
There are many factors that contribute to whether or not these victimized children will avoid the cycle of violence, including the frequency and type of abuse. Four key aspects contribute to and are associated with positive life outcomes. These are: self-control, low depression, self-esteem, and verbal intelligence(Wright, Turanovic, O’Neal, Morse, & Booth, 2019). In addition to individual factors, there are also five social protective factors that play a role in whether the abuse will continue or not: marriage, job satisfaction, mentorship, religion and educational attainment. These factors are considered safeguards because they give the traumatized child the support they need to overcome the battles of hardship they so previously endured (Wright, Turanovic, O’Neal, Morse, & Booth, 2019).
There are many theories that have been found to explain this phenomenon of physically abused children going on to abuse later in adulthood. The two most relevant are the social learning theory and the attachment theory. According to the social learning theory, social behaviors are learned through mimicking parent’s behavior. So, if the child is exposed early on to the negative behaviors of verbal and physical abuse, they are more likely to mimic this behavior later in life. The attachment theory focuses less on how some children learn to model behavior when they are younger, and focuses most on how the child can form an internal modelof others and themselves based on the early interactions with their parents.(Wright, Turanovic, O’Neal, Morse, & Booth, 2019).
These internal examples provide assurance about how people should treat one another, and thus form negative connections early on in childhood. By choosing the attachment approach, the occurrence of child abuse resurfaces because as a child, they have developed the behavior and modeled it from their parents to where they then become “attached” to the behavior, and essentially start to mimic it as adults and even project it onto their own offspring. With respect to both of these theories, it is clear that being abused early on can have a negative impact on a child’s life (Wright, Turanovic, O’Neal, Morse, & Booth, 2019).
When coupled with focused therapy and EMDRT, traumatic memories can be overcome with time. This method of EMDRT is practiced by asking the client to concentrate intensely on the most tormented segment of a traumatic memory while moving their eyes rapidly from side to side. Following the initial focus on the memory segment after each set of eye movements, the client is asked to report anything that ‘shows up’, whether it be an image, thought, emotion or physical sensation. This method is replicated until the client mentions no further torment from the trauma. It is suggested that this procedure somehow induces accelerated information processing whereby stuck material can be accessed rapidly and thereby disappears (Greenwald, 2012).
This method has had its share of skeptics, but in 1995 a group of researchers partook in a study involving females affected by PTSD and trauma who were engaging in promiscuous behavior and drug abuse. In the study, Scheck, Schaeffer and Gillette (1995) compared two groups. Both groups, which included females aged 16-24 who were engaging in high-risk behaviors and shared a history of trauma, included the random assignment of 60 participants who received therapy, independent blind assessment, and multiple test measures coupled with EMDRT. “Although both groups improved post treatment, EMDRT outperformed on all measures in each study. The EMDRT group’s post-treatment gains were also clinically significant, with mean scores falling within one standard deviation of the non-clinical norms on all measures in contrast with the other group,” (Greenwald, 2012). This was not the only study that had EMDRT outperform on all measures. This technique has shown to be useful when dealing with victimized children or adults and is still being used to this day. In fact, in multiple studies worldwide, there is a significant decrease in symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD when used with EMDRT. There has also been a significant decrease in the percentage of adults who go on to abuse later on (Greenwald,2012).
In pursuance of childhood trauma coupled with adulthood abuse, we devised a study that analyzed the extent of reform that EMDRT can provide in order to prevent the recurrence of abuse in adulthood. We provided the participants, who were a demographic match to the trials we were conducting, each with a randomly assigned condition. We used a sample of 232 participants, and provided the control group with EMDRT as well as focused therapy for six concurrent months. The experimental group only received the focused therapy, which included anger management and group therapy for six concurrent months. We predicted that the participants treated with both EMDRT and focused therapy would exhibit less physically abusive behavior than those treated only with focused therapy. We expected the EMDRT to outweigh anger management and group therapy (focused).
232 participants made up prior victims of physical abuse were randomly selected by the demographic questionnaire to take part in this study. Of these participants 50.0% (N=116) were female and 50.0% (N=116) were male. Ages ranged from 18-55, with an average age of 36.5. Our sample population consisted of 24.4% Hispanic Americans (N=55), 54.4% Caucasians (N=78), 3.9 % African Americans (N=90) and 7.3% Others (N=9)
Materials and Procedure
Materials utilized in this experiment consisted of several outcome measurement tools such as the Outcome Rating Scale(OCR) which is a pre-test before the participant engages in the trials as well as the Session Rating Scale (SRS) which is a post-test that analyzes any difference in the participants behavior that may positively affect them in the future.
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Bonomi, A., Nichols, E., Kammes, R., & Green, T. (2018). Sexual violence and intimate partner violence in college women with a mental health and/or behavior disability
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the emdr journey game (Order No. AAI3621029). Available from PsycINFO. (1653145309; 2015-99030-265). Retrieved from http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/docview/1653145309?accountid=10901
Davidson, P. R., & Parker, K. C. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing
(EMDR): A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(2), 305-316. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/docview/70900901?accountid=10901
Gallagher, C. (2004). Making sense of EMDR: Efficacy of EMDR and the application of
horowitz’s control process theory to a psychological analysis of EMDR psychotherapy (Order No. AAI3132374). Available from PsycINFO. (620631585; 2004-99022-084). Retrieved from http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/docview/620631585?accountid=10901
Greenwald, R. (2012). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): New hope for children suffering from trauma and loss. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 3(2), 279-287. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359104598032010
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Tobia, A. (2018). Integrative treatment of emotional traumas. In D. A. Monti, & A. B. Newberg
(Eds.), 2nd ed.; integrative psychiatry and brain health (2nd ed.) (2nd ed. ed., pp. 530-554, Chapter xiii, 600 Pages) Oxford University Press, New York, NY. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/docview/2082681619?accountid=10901
Wright, K. A., Turanovic, J. J., O’Neal, E. N., Morse, S. J., & Booth, E. T. (2019). The cycle of violence revisited: Childhood victimization, resilience, and future violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 34(6), 1261-1286. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260516651090
Experimental Paper I Grading Rubric Weighted at 30% of the overall course grade (Scoring – 30 points)
Your assignment will include the following