UC Davis Transnational Peasants Migrations Networks & Ethnicity in Andean Ecuador
Essay: UC Davis Transnational Peasants Migrations Networks
Description/Paper Instructions: UC Davis Transnational Peasants Migrations Networks
-Grammar check, elaborate the sentences and make it more professional.( Read textbook and two videos)
Using the same format as the last essay, please answer the following three questions (2-3 pages each) and upload by 5:00pm on Tuesday, November 12th.
1. What are the two primary research questions of the Kyle book and how are they answered ?
2. How are racism, talentism, and meritocracy (as an ideal and dystopia) part of the social and cultural historical dimensions of this tale of two transnational migrations and regional “development.”
3. Using the following two videos, describe how or where we find (or not find) the ideology of meritocracy and a belief in scientific talentism in the documentary, “Immigration Battle,” regarding the last major attempt for “comprehensive immigration reform.”
The book, Transnational Peasants: Migrations, Networks, and Ethnicity in Andean Ecuador, by David Kyle, explores varying underlying dynamics which exist in different forms of migration that existed in Ecuador. The first primary research question in the book is why do two groups from the same country pursue radically different economic strategies of transnational mobility. The second research question is how ethnic identity has shaped two divergent patterns of transnational migration i.e., to New York versus to Europe. The two groups from the same country pursue different strategies of transnational migration because of some differences that exist between these groups (Kyle 5). The Otavalo people in the northern part of Ecuador have a different mode of production compared to the Azuay from the southern part; therefore, these communities can afford different means of transnational mobility. The Azuay live in southern highlands, and generations survive by making Panama hats for commercial purposes, and they occasionally immigrate to New York. The Otavalo live in northern highlands, and their economic activity is weaving though recently, they have changed to music. In addition, the diverse form of transnational mobility has been brewed by some differences which lie along with demographic and ethnic identities. These differences between communities make it possible for each community to go for the mode of immigration, which suits them better and can make them arrive at their desired destination. The Otavalo peddle their commodities to far places such as Europe and since it is a long journey, and they pursue the aid of smugglers and immigration merchants (Kyle 23). On the other hand, the Azuay community, who often migrate to New York, prefer to use common people because their economic status cannot afford the services of smugglers and merchants. These differences in social class, status, economic grounds make these different communities employ different modes of mobility because they are distinct, and each community chooses a mode of migration which suits their economic standards. Therefore, economic standards, social class, and ethnic identity are factors that have enabled the existence of two types of transnational mobility by two groups from the same country.
Ethnic identity has shaped two divergent patterns of transnational migration. Ethnic identity is an underlying factor that distinguishes these different forms of migration since each community prefers a mode of mobility that suits their social class. The two regions in Ecuador has had a long history of differences which traces back to the pre-Inca times. The traditional economic activity of the people in the north has been different from the one in the southern part, and thus the development of a different of a social class which makes these individual clusters themselves into different categories (Kyle 64). Different economic patterns give rise to varying ethnic identities and divisions, which make generations from these communities associate themselves with their social class. Patterns of transnationalism, which were developed over several centuries by varying generations, continue to determine a crucial role of who will stay in Ecuador and who will stay. People consider the culture of origin as an essential aspect in maintaining links with other people who have migrated and thus follow the choices which others their ethnic group have chosen. Individuals follow the traits which other grown-up members of the society have chosen because they believe they consist of a heritage that is shared with the people in the locality (Kyle 34). Immigrants carry with them cultural capital, among other things as items of identity, and in the process, they develop a belonging since they wish to maintain the identity and end up choosing a different route that other members of ethnic groups have chosen. Individuals from different ethnic groups know the mode of mobility which fits their ethnic identity, leading to the existence of different patterns of transnational mobility, which defines each class.
Racism, talents, and meritocracy are part of social and cultural-historical dimensions in the tale of two transnational and regional development. Social forces such as racism and meritocracy operate as an invisible structure that plays a role in designing the existence of two forms of migration witnessed within different communities in Ecuador. These communities experienced different forms of experiences, such as racism, and use these different the underlying historical dimensions to develop their regions. The two regions possess different types of skills, such as making hats and weaving, which makes them strive and develop their region differently. The idea of meritocracy comes to play in the scenario whereby a particular group in Ecuador prefers merits over aspects such as social classes and thus develop their regions differently. The economic status of these regions creates dynamic as to why the most fortunate community is more developed compared to the other. The Otavalo community could be more talented compared to the other community Azuay since they are skilled in weaving and have entered the field of music; therefore, they could afford a more complex model of transnational mobility (Kyle 12). Communities with diverse talents are always on the upper hand because they can generate more income, and develop their area more than the other. The southerners from the history of the country have been favored because of their economic prowess over the others, which gives them the advantage to develop and have access to links. Ecuador is a nation composed of regions that have long histories of imbalance both economically and historically and which members of the communities keep on carrying forward. The comparison of these communities, which places one above the other historically, gives birth to the different forms of transnationals since the societies believe they possess some set societal standards (Kyle 41). The migrants in their country have already had some social and economic positions and are always destined to work hard and maintain these statuses, which define their class and set them above others. Depending on the resources which are available in any given region, communities work to ensure continuity of the historical legacies set by the previous generations.
The two tales of transnational mobility have been deep-rooted in many factors, such as social and cultural dimensions, which allow for some regions to be better placed compared to the others. The differences in skill level and exposure makes individuals gain more experience and contribute to the economy more compared to the other group. The situation leads to regional development since one region is considered to be developed over the other and thus given more preference and recognition, leading to regional development. There is the existence of two levels comparative of cultural analysis, which shape migrants as cultural actors to promote their identities, which leads to the development of regions in different dimensions. The people have also had different forms of exposure since they borrow many concepts from the countries they immigrate to, such as racism, which inspires them to develop their regions due to suffering in the hands of racist countries (Kyle 234). The ideas meritocracy also influences the tale of two transnational since certain groups have a perception that they have better merits compared to other groups, and thus they do not deserve the same form of treatment, thus leading to the development of divergent choices. From a cultural context, each group wants to identify itself differently from other groups, which means that they will develop their region differently to meet the standards attached to their class. Ethnic identity and class lines make the regions to ensure they subscribe to a mode of transnational mobility which suits their social class and which is accepted by the other members within the economic ground.
The videos explore several instances surrounding immigration reforms in the United States of America and display the ideology of meritocracy and scientific talents. At the beginning of the documentary, there is the instance in the film which talks about the election of former President Obama, who was voted as the president because of merit and not social class. Mr. Obama was elected because he had promised to achieve many things for the people among them orchestrating immigration reforms, which would ensure that immigrant communities are recognized in the country. The retired president was chosen by the electorate not because of his social class but because of the effort he demonstrated. The idea of meritocracy is also evident in the passing of the bi-partisan immigration legislature, which was to take care of the rights of immigrant people in the country. Leaders evaluated the ramifications of deporting thousands of immigrant parents, which will lead to instances such as broken families. Many of the people who wanted the reforms to be enacted evaluated the consequences of allowing thousands of immigrants in the country and the effects the situation will have on the country. On the other hand, there are individuals who opposed the reforms since they believed that the bill would have the freedom to the immigrant community. Democrat Luiz Gutierrez was elected by thousands of America because of merit and achievement he had achieved while in school and later life. Luiz gives much attention to the immigration reforms on the basis that they will protect the rights of many immigrant people living in the country. Gutierrez traces his roots from Latino society, and people believed that he was best suited to represent them and did not consider his social class. He is a qualified person who believes in the rule of law and justice for the immigrant people making thousands of people rallying behind him because of social class.
Besides, the battle for immigration has some ideologies of meritocracy by the fact the people who care for and against the reforms are considering the achievements that the amendment will make to the American people. In the middle of the documentary, there is an instance some of the members from the republican are filmed in the pub discussion ways through which the speaker was elected. They say that the speaker was not elected through merit, and it is the reason he was not discharging his duties due to incompetence. The concept of the speaker not being elected on the basis of merit leads to the use of scientific talent, where he opposed bills such as Obamacare to rise to power. In the documentary, there is an instance whereby a certain lady is addressing a gathering of immigrants in a hall wearing t-shirts written dreamers and asks the gathering about the leaders who can stop the deportation. The young immigrants rate the performances of leaders and agree that Obama is the individual who can stop deportation due to his achievements. Barack Obama is an individual who rose to power by going against his social class since he traces his origin from the African society, and the people believed he was talented to lead the country.
Kyle David. Transnational Peasants: Migrations, Networks, and Ethnicity in Andean, Ecuador. The John Hopkins University Press (2000):10-268.
Dir. Robertson, S and Camerini, M. “Season 2015 Episode 17” Immigration Battle (2015). https://www.pbs.org/video/frontline-immigration-battle/
Quality of Response
Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points)
Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.
20 points out of 50: The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking.
30 points out of 50: The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately. Elements of the required response may also be lacking.
40 points out of 50: The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples. The answer is complete.
50 points: The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples. No aspects of the required answer are missing.
Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points).
Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper.
5 out 20 points: Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper.
10 out 20 points: References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated. Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources.
15 out 20 points: Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors. There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources.
20 points: Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented. APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment.
Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points)
Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.
5 points out of 20: The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors
10 points out 20: The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors
15 points out of 20: The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage.
20 points: The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free.
Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points)
Zero points: Student failed to submit the final paper.
3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever.
5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. The can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements. The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper
7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment.
10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.
GET THIS PROJECT NOW BY CLICKING ON THIS LINK TO PLACE THE ORDER