|Writer level||High School|
|Sources / references||1|
|Description / paper instructions
First : Download the two files from these links for multiple choice and exam
1- Combined Slides https://ufile.io/vf2mnq9m
2- Combined Reading https://ufile.io/1ze8dgcb
Second : Find the attached file that have Part B answers for 4 questions. Solve all (lowest grade will be dropped).
Third : For Part C use both files in the link and one outside article (Send the article later)
(1) Answer b. Ebenezer Howard
(2) Answer c. Daniel Burnham
(3) Answer b. Suburbanization
(4) Answer b. Garden City movement
(5) Answer b. City beautiful movement
Characteristics of Edge City
An edge city is characterized by convenience which basically implies that wide street is close to the highways. Another feature of an edge city is large retail spacethat is able to attract more shoppers. Additionally, edge city has developer dominance so that it is mainly developed by an individual firm. Besides, there is a shadow government in an edge city meaning that may be dominated by private institutions. Another characteristic of edge city is insufficient social capita. On the other hand, suburban developments are sparsely populated so that one cannot satisfy their daily needs within a walking distance.
Land use planning can be described as a method of planning that aims to enhance the standards of life in urban areas. There are four types of plans that a planner can choose from: Democratic planning mainly deals with the issues reducing social class imbalance and racism by allowing citizens to exercise their rights in planning for the community. Essentially, advocacy and equity planning entail undertaking democratic planning with the aim solving social problems of injustice among members of the community. Environmental planning mainly focuses on enhancing better ecology and reducing environmental degradation. Tenure responsive planning holds that the use of land ought to be participatory but with the objective of tenure security improvement.
The sustainabilityprism blends the planning principles of sustainable development. The prism is a description of the triangle that critically examines the three basic aspects of sustainable development which are equity, environment and economy. The triangle also depicts conflicts within the economy, environment and equity unsustainable development. Between equity and economy there is the property conflict, between equityand environment, there is the development conflict and there is the resource conflict between the environment and the economy.
During the walking-Horsecar Era between 1800 and 1890 is the period when lighter street rails were installed which eliminated the problems of unpaved roadways and enabled horse-cars to be hauled at high speeds. In this era mobility was enhanced through a narrow band of land to be opened for new home construction at the city’s edge. During the electric Streetcar Era (1890-1920), the greatest impact was the swift residential development of the urban fringe. These fringes amplified the developing metropolis into a spatial entity. During this period, the housing standards increased and streetcar suburbs increased with respect to distance from the central-city line.
During the Recreational Automobile Era (1920-1945) the city was able to grow to its zenith and metropolitan development centralized in the urban areas which greatly rebelled against unification of the city. At this era automobiles were adapted at the densely populated urban areas. The Freeway Era between 1945 to date got rid of the central city’s CBD so that it became easier to access any part of the expressway network using motor vehicles. Besides some structural transformations emerged.
The city of Rakesh with an area 6000 acres whichis in a midst of natural amenities like mountain and a river with perennial supply of water offers a nice place for the population of 20000 people. Essentially, the acquired land is an important resource due to the fact that the urban land use will have a major impact on the sustainability of Rakesh city. The vision of the master plan is to create and develop an urban area that will integrate the various development strategies supported by big organizations that do not spell gentrification and dislocation for the working-class and poor neighborhoods. The mission of the master plan is to develop an urban society that will integrate all people irrespective of class, race, or social divisions and reduce the pressures created by the economic differences between people and institutional players. This plan focuses on providing a city that will help the low-income neighborhoods given that the population expected to live in the city range from low to median income group.
The master plan approach involves using the use of new urbanism and smart growth as the concepts of planning. These planning concepts ought to integrate the issues of social inequality, class, and race in the planning process given that some urban planner usually ignores such in the planning process. Further, the development of the city of Rakesh Master Plan is rooted in the involvement of residents, state representatives, and elected officials in interviews and meetings to be able to establishing the date of launch and completion.
The development of infrastructure and waterways need to be ought to designed in a way that will be environmental friendly. Given that the city of Rakesh is in a midst of mountain and a river with perennial supply of water, the process should not cause harm to the environment. The development process should integrate off-site sewage treatment methods as the environment may be contaminated. The development framework should have planning policies in place. The policies for the development of the city of Rakesh should consider that the expected income group and the aforementioned resources.
The planning and implementation process for the development of the city of Rakesh should be done in four stages. In the first phase, the plan entails determining the planning of a State of Community Report by articulating the vision of the development process. The framework for the development process of the city is to build an economic hub where people from all races will interact and do business. The framework also entails building a good housing facility that will accommodate people from the low income and median income groups. The production process phase involves evaluating and monitoring the development process of Rakesh city. At each stage of infrastructure process, the design plan for all the facilities such as roads, sewerage system, and housing structures should be undertaken in consideration with all the opinions from all the stakeholders. At this phase, the development process varies from a smaller to large neighborhood scale. However, the sequence of development stages of the development of the facilities and sequences should be flexible.
The development processes need to designate employment areas where the activities will vary from service, office, trade and manufacturing activities. The employment areas should have good infrastructure for easy accessibility. Living zones should incorporate mixed-use and private neighborhoods with enough housing. Housing facilities ought to be useful for purposes of public transport, shopping, employment, and community facilities. The living areas ought to be cushioned from activities such manufacturing among others. The recreation and shopping facilities should also be constructed in the living area. Depending on the consumer demand, the development of housing facilities should vary according to type of housing, locations, and densities. Further cultural and entertainment areas should be constructed in this zone.
The living areas should accommodate public and regional transit facilities and ought to be centrally located for easy accessibility. Transportation should be conceived as an area wide multimodal system of street and rail facilities that are closely integrated with the proposed land use and activity centers of the land use design. They should address needs for pedestrian movement within residential areas and activity centers. The Community offices like train stations, airports, police station, and medical-care facilities ought to should be done in designated areas. In particular, the land areas need to use land patterns that will be carefully designed for purposes of construction. Designated areas should also be left for particular user groups to undertake economic activities. `Also, some sites should be left for economic activities and future expansions. Areas covered by mountains and river should be conserved and delineated. Management facilities for services such as solid waste management and park conservation should be protected.
The investigation and assessment of urban projects should be determined by involving all the stakeholders in the project. The assessment ought to have a good framework that will help in addressing needs, alleviating issues, and achieving objectives. The assessment process should be executed well using clear plan strategies. Such strategies should check the level of development and land uses in the community. The targets set for the master plan should be checked to see if they have been accomplished. The assessment of the conditions for the urban project development should be done intermittently. The primary time period for undertaking the assessment is yearly or semi-annually. The result of the assessment will be used to make amendments and improving the master plan.
At the first Stage, preliminary data on land use and plan making for the city of Rakesh involves carefully examining the components of the land usage to be able to make a good plan. The results should involve coming up with a Community Report in which the vision and issues of the city will be investigated. The plan should have all the areas that will be need to cover such as housing, transport, sewerage, entertainment among others. In Stage 2, the master plan of the city of Rakesh should clearly set the implementation framework and assessments. The community should be involved in the planning agenda as the outcome of the development process is of public interest. Thus, the citizens, planners, and officials should be involved in the incremental decision making.