Domestic Violence Against Men
|Topic||Domestic violence against men|
|Sources / references||1|
|Description / paper instructions
hello, I have a paper that needs some work. it requires some work to add to the discussion section according to the questions added to the survey ( about 7 questions ) which would be about 2-3 pages and also the tables need to be filled. and an exploratory analysis needs to be done based on the excel sheet that I have about the survey that I did that would be about a page max. and its for masters program project, but its not the whole paper, only these parts that are missing.
these are the questions that need to be discussed:12. What is your current religion if any?
13. Which of the following that best describes your current relationship?
14. What is your current employment status?
15. What’s your education background?
16. Do you think masculinity and vulnerability can exist together?
17. How do you want to be described by your friends?the questions were grouped by 3 categories, social attitudes and cultural masculinity and domestic violence. domestic violence is the dependent variable so the questions in the other two categories were the independent ones to show the relationship between them.
the paper and exploratory analysis excel sheet ( sheet 4) are attached along with the whole paper.
please let me know if there are any questions
Domestic Violence and Abused Men
In the recent years, domestic violence has become an increasingly common challenge and creates issue among many households across the world. It affects both men and women regardless of their social status, race, education, professions, and income levels. Just as everyone can be a victim of domestic violence, anyone can be an abuser. Studies have shown that women have been regular victims of domestic violence where their partners act as the perpetrators and abusers. Outrageously, trends are changing nowadays as men are increasingly becoming victims of domestic violence at increasingly unexpected rates. Despite their masculinity and physical strength, men are often unable to avoid abuse and violence instigated by their female counterparts. This paper will seek to explore men as victims of domestic violence.
Comprehending the seriousness of the discussed issue, one should acknowledge that the increase of the abused men number must be seriously considered and addressed at a state and social levels worldwide (Mulroney & Chan, 2005). Hence, it is essential to determine, analyze, and discuss the factors that enhance the males’ domestic abuse occurrence. The current research will aim at identifying the causes of men’s domestic violence.
From the ancient times, the male part of the world is known to dominate over females (Shuler, 2010). This historical dominance was stipulated by the capacity of males to control and suppress. For instance, men were stronger and more aggressive. Thus, these qualities resulted in the formation of their dominant position. This implication of dominance gains relevance in the modern world when the same-sex relations become more common and widespread. It suggests that both men and women can be the victims of their intimate partners. Hence, it helps assume that this is a significant factor that contributes to the increase of domestic violence against men.
This study aimed at investigating the reasons for the increased domestic violence against men from the three perspectives. These perspectives were the negative implications of (a) masculinity, (b) social attitudes, and (c) demographic peculiarities. The paper relied on a cross-sectional survey by interviewing a group of men in Facebook.
The research was designed to answer the following questions:
This research hypothesis is as follows: Domestic violence is associated with cultural masculinity implications, social/political attitudes, and demographics.
The dependent variable of the research was domestic violence against males, while the independent variables included (a) cultural masculinity implications, (b) social/political attitudes, and (c) demographic conditions. The dependent variable was the occurrence of domestic violence that presupposes the abuse of men. The dependent variable of cultural masculinity implications was a set of attributes, roles, and behaviors associated with boys and men in a certain culture or society. Social attitudes indicated the perception of the public of the male abuse, while the political attitude described in terms of policies that protect males in the society.
Masculinity and Domestic Violence against Men
The term of “domestic violence” is used loosely in society. The term is referred to in society in the context of male-to-female abuse (Johnson & Ferrero, 2000). In America three out of four citizens know someone who has been victimized domestically (Domestic Violence Resource Center, 2019). Ten percent of males and 21% of female victims contact a social agency when trying to leave a relationship (Domestic Violence Resource Center, 2019). Intimate partner assaults that are physical are done to women at rate of 4.8 million compared 2.9 million assaults committed against men (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). According to National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV) 2019, 13.4% of male high school students report being physically or sexually abused by a dating partner. The NCADV found that one in four men have been physically abused (slapped, pushed, shoved) by an intimate partner. One in seven men have been severely physically abused (hit with a fist or hard object, kicked, slammed against something, choked, burned, etc.) by an intimate partner at some point in their lifetime. The rates of males who suffer from domestic violence are reportedly increasing over time seeing that violence against men is hard to identify despite being a serious threat (Horwitz et al., 2011). Also, men are overly ashamed as it is a taboo in many cultures for men to be afraid, vulnerable, and overwhelmed by women.
In the modern world, the cases of the domestic abuse of men have significantly grown as their frequency has increased.According to the statistics provided by Corry, Fiebert and Pizzey (2002), “25%-30% of all intimate violence is exclusively female on male” (p. 1). Despite the constantly increasing occurrence of the domestic abuse of males, the number of such cases still remains lower than the same violation of human rights in terms of females. It has been found that men are far more reluctant to report abuse comparing to women (Pandora’s Project, 2009).
This is directly related to the notion of masculinity that affects all decisions made by men. In addition, it has a significant impact on the views and beliefs of the third parties. Hence, most people find that men are supposed to be strong physically and emotionally, thus they must be capable of fixing their private issues without involving any third parties. That is why the true number of the abused men is not known, but it is expected to be significantly higher than reported.
Therefore, one should note that the notion of masculinity as a cultural attitude has two negative implications. The first one is the concealing of the true magnitude of issues connected with domestic abuse of males, while the second is the attitude that encourages the increase of violence against men (Dutton &White, 2013).
Moreover, the abuse of men can be linked to the political and social policies that are not sufficient enough to protect males from domestic violence. In this regard, it will be appropriate to point out that the legislation of gay marriages is reported to be the factor that causes considerable enhancement of the male domestic violence ratio (Mulroney & Chan, 2005).
Whereas this claim does not presume that granting sexual minorities with equal rights is an incorrect decision, it just suggests that the legislative basis should be aligned with the contemporary social demands. Furthermore, it is possible to presume that the ratio of men’s domestic abuse is positively related to certain demographic particularities, such as age, social position, the level of education, and income.
The definition hegemonic masculinity implies that “the power of being able to dominate without using raw force as the main or only means of domination” (Harders, n.d., p. 140). In other word, the power to dominate is attributed to a male individual because of his gender (Fleming, Morton, McCleary-Sills, &Levtov, 2015). On the one hand, it creates favorable conditions for a man to abuse physically and mentally his partner regardless his/her gender. On the other hand, the notion of hegemonic masculinity encourages the development of the confrontation from the side of the intimate partners. Simply put, it forms the rationale that if a man is strong, he can be abused because for him it is not as important/painful/offensive/distrustful as for his weaker partner.
Furthermore, evaluating hegemonic masculinity from social and political perspectives, it is possible to suggest that masculinity leads to the men’s dominance in prestige works and, respectfully, higher income. Apart from that, hegemonic masculinity can be linked to the demographic peculiarities of age and education. Specifically, it is natural to assume that higher education and life experience add power to all the representatives of both genders (Dutton&White, 2013). In a case of the individuals who were identified as moral agents, this acquisition of additional power may stipulate the stronger confrontation with their intimate partners.
On the other hand, it leaves men less protected than women in terms of legality. For example, in family conflicts men are often recognized as the offenders a priori. The rationale of this belief is the following: men are stronger; their strength makes them become the moral agents who are responsible for moral and ethical resolution of conflicts (Dutton, &White, 2013). These examples suggest that political and social regulations involuntary and indirectly contribute to the increase of males’ domestic assaults by setting unequal conditions in terms of violence anticipation.
The analysis of the literature sources has shown that hegemonic masculinity contributes to both men’s violence against their female or male partners and women’s violence against male partners evoked as the response towards hegemonic masculinity. Also, there is an increased scientific attention to the examination of the aspects of masculinity as potential predictors of partner violence (Moore & Stuart, 2005).
The researchers analyzed the relationship between masculinity and partner violence and outlined four distinct approaches to the identification of operationalizing masculinity. Hence, they considered a trait approach, gender role conflict approach, normative approach, and indirect approach. However, abuse is also analyzed in the term of family relationship. The study conducted by Corry, Fiebert and Pizzey (2002) indicated that “people hit and abuse family members because they can” (p. 1).
Therefore, the notion of masculinity contributes to the formation of idea that violence is permitted. What makes the things even worse is that domestic violence against men is characterized with a great controversy. For instance, there are different types of violence as well as different reasons. Moreover, it is hard to distinguish the true victims from those who pretend to be abused or those, who experienced violence in a response to their aggression. It implies that a thorough look at the psychology of men and masculinity may help understand the men’s behavior.
The psychology of men and masculinity was analyzed by Mankowski and Maton (2010) who stated that males have power due to their gender, but differ from females in access to power based on a number of individual characteristics, including education, social class, income, sexual orientation, physical strength, ethnicity, and others. Therefore, they are studied as “generic rather than gendered beings in psychology” (p. 73). Moreover, hegemonic masculinity suggests that women abuse men using the gender of their intimate partners as an excuse.
Males are often taught not to hit females as their duty is to protect them. It means that the notion of masculinity is sometimes used to explain the violent behavior against men. Sometimes, it is referred as the inability of many male representatives to provide proper response (Tatum& Pence, 2015). Moreover, the negative implication of this cultural attitude is rooted quite deep in the conscious of both victims and offenders (Lockwood, & Prohaska, 2015). Therefore, in many cases, none of them considers such behavior as improper, which creates beneficial conditions for violence intensification.
In terms of the types of violence, it is appropriate to make an emphasis on the physical and mental abuse. This classification also implies the vagueness of the domestic assaults. To be more precise, many people may not even know that they are being offended since violence is much more than the use of physical power. The corresponding study suggests that most men experienced domestic mental abuse at least one time. The mental domestic abuse includes various kinds of humiliations such as calling offensive names, belittling, ridiculing, isolating from family and social circle and many others. Hence, it is vital to consider different types of abuse.
The analysis of relevant sources has shown that other types of include financial abuse (control of expenses, deprivation of financial autonomy), indirect physical offense, which presumes the destruction of property and causing harm to pets or dear people of a victim. In addition, an important part of domestic violence is sexual abuse that presupposes forcing an intimate partner to do the actions that are undesirable or even hazardous. A classification provided by Kimmel (2002) includes instrumental violence that implies the control or reproduction of subordination.
Thus, type of violence is more common than the previously mentioned ones, but at the same time, it is a part of interpersonal relations and manipulations, and therefore, fails to be properly identified. Thus, it is possible to assume that hegemonic masculinity contributes to the development of violence by instilling the mental attitudes in both men and women that allow or excuse committing the act of abuse against a male intimate partner.
Political and Social Lapses in Addressing Domestic Abuse of Males
The social concept of hegemonic masculinity was developed and shaped over centuries. Therefore, in the modern world, it is deeply rooted in people’s minds and exists as a part of national awareness. In these terms, men are taught to avoid complaining; besides, they are raised to be averse of failures, meanwhile, experiencing domestic abuse is definitely a failure in building successful family relations. In these and other ways, society engages males to neglect the acts of domestic violence. This insight is supported with the corresponding statistics. It has been found that only nearly 1% of males who are assaulted by their female partners report the abuse to the police (Fleming et al., 2015).
Apart from the females’ aggression men experience violence from their male partners. As it was mentioned above, the legislation of gay marriages created more preconditions for the severe males’ domestic abuse (Buzawa 2012). In particular, the legislative basis that protects men in same-sex marriages is not sufficient enough to discourage the cases of domestic violence. Consider the statistics, “within same-sex relationships, from 15-20 % to up to 25 % of men” experience domestic offenses (Mulroney & Chan, 2005, p. 5).
Men are rightfully considered to be physically stronger as well as more inclined for control and dominance. These qualities are positively related with the notion of masculinity that is instilled in boys’ mentality by their role models and society. Therefore, whereas, a woman is more likely to apply to instrumental abuse or use violence as a self-defense approach, men are potentially more included to search for dominance. Linking this peculiarity to the unequal disposure of physical power, it is possible to deduce that when a man is assaulted by a woman the negative implications are potentially less serious than when a man is confronted by his male partner (Nnawulezi, Sullivan, Marcus, Young, & Hacskaylo, 2019). This insight needs to be considered at a state level in order to protect the weaker member of a spouse or family in same-sex relations.
In general, the fact that males’ domestic abuse is not being addressed as seriously as the acts of violence against females can be observed in the police’s reactions towards the assaulted men who dare to claim being assaulted. Consider the example, the research aimed at identifying the reaction of the UK police towards men reporting domestic violence revealed the following findings. In general, 42% of officers believed that the wives of the abused men were the victims. Besides, about 35% of police officers ignored men’s complaints; whereas, in 30% of cases, males were pressurized to leave home (Mays, n. d.). Furthermore, around 25% of officers ignored the evidence of males’ domestic violence; meanwhile, 33 % of them acknowledged the act of an assault but did nothing to help (Mays, n.d.).
Considering this response, it is not surprising that the victimized males are reluctant to report the acts of offense. The risk that they will be ridiculed or not heard is too high.
Hence, it has become evident why there is close relationship between social concept of hegemonic masculinity and the corresponding cultural attitudes that affect the unbiased approaches of governments and society while addressing the issue of domestic violence. Consequently, it is natural to assume that, by the lack of reaction, both state and community contribute to the deterioration of the domestic abuse on men.
Relationship between Men’s Age, Education, Income, Social Position and the Likelihood of Violence
Hines (2009) arranged a number of studies with the purpose to identify the ways in which demographics were connected with the domestic violence against men. First and foremost, it is necessary to state that the connection between these notions is identified to be strong. Consider the case, among“the American heterosexual men aged from 18 to 59 the general age of the abused males is 40” (Hines, 2009, p. 6).
This information complies with the stated premise that masculinity is reinforced with the growth of experience and social status, which stipulates the strengthening of the confronting forces. Besides, the findings connected with the level of income also support this insight (Karakurt & Cumbie, 2012). For example, “the abused men reported to earn about $50000 annually, whereas, their abusive intimate partners were claimed to earn around $30000” (Hines, 2009, p. 6).
The gap in the income between partners can be positively related to the increase likelihood of domestic assaults (Schlosser, Cha-Jua, Valgoi, & Neville, 2015). Acknowledging that this conclusion requires further studies; it is appropriate to state that the revealed data supports the premise that masculinity is strengthened within the time, simultaneously, with the growth of man’s achievements.
As throughout the human history males were considered to be born with the predominant qualities of being physically stronger and the community is positively responding to hegemonic masculinity. Thereafter, growing older a man obtains more dominance by adding the new qualities to the arsenal (Karakurt & Cumbie, 2012). In this regard, it is necessary to clarify that the level of education is not directly included in the scale, but it is possible to presume that older age and better level of income are positively related to higher education (Fleming et al., 2015).
As a result, the growth of strength engages his partner to apply to offensive behavior. It goes without saying that this explanation does not excuse abusive behavior, but it definitely helps understand its primeval causes and, this information can be used to address and eliminate the discussed social issue. However, there is also an idea that females gain more power in the modern society and it is different from the understanding of the traditional gender roles. Therefore, it challenges male privilege, threatening them, and resorts either to violence or commitment and obeyance (Conroy, 2014).
This implies that personal and social characteristics are not always related to the level of domestic violence against men. Moreover, it has been found that male and female victimization shares some of the same predictors and tend to result from similar circumstances and motivations. Thus, the analysis of literature sources has shown the question of domestic violence again males are frequently discussed in the scientific sources. Although there are different classifications of domestic abuse, the factors that cause domestic violence and other factors that impact violence onset, most of them indicate the change of the traditional roles in the modern society.
The analysis of the relevant literature sources has shown that abuse is analyzed through the consideration of family relationship. It has been found that masculinity is analyzed as a factor that results in abuse. Also, an increased focus is made on the concept of hegemonic masculinity and its impact on domestic violence against males (Karakurt & Cumbie, 2012). Finally, social position, income, and education are central in the discussions of domestic violence.
Overview of Design
A survey was the primary data collection source using the dichotomous response and checklist methods. Also, the paper used the elements of the descriptive research design as it described certain characteristics of gender roles, the shift of dominance, and other aspects related to the topic under investigation. In addition, it reviewed the testimonies of both the offenders and victims of the males’ domestic violence.
The researcher identified a target group in Facebook where the numbers of battered men shared their problems and experiences regarding Domestic Violence. Hence, the survey participants were 100 men who took the survey on Facebook.The survey that was used in the study contained 17 questions (see Appendix A).
The sample collected consisted of 100 participants. The sample was mostly Australian (42%), followed by American (20%), Iranian/American (24%) and not specified (14%). After the analyses between the different form versions were completed, the researcher attempted to run a statistical analysis related to answers given on the survey and different demographic characteristics given.
The researcher received approval from the Institutional Review Board at National University to perform this research study. Survey Monkey was used to host the survey online. The survey was accessed by participants on their own personal electronic device at their convenience. The researcher approached individuals in a Male Domestic Support Facebook group. They were given a complete description of the survey and the survey’s URL. Participants were told that participation in this study is voluntary and upon deciding to participate, their responses would be anonymous – that is, recorded without any identifying information that is linked to them.
The data collected was documented in a locked excel sheet in the researcher’s personal laptop. Before the survey, the researcher explained the importance of the current research and their contribution to it. The survey adopted a question-answer approach as it clearly demonstrated the feelings of men and how they responded to particular questions. Because the participants were anonymous, they felt free to give honest answers. Moreover, hidden identities gave the respondents more confidence and less worry for retribution.The survey was not administered in person and only a note was provided to explain the survey to the participants. Contact information was provided to answer questions and clear confusions.
The survey was conducted in two Facebook groups.
Appendix A shows the research measure, and their link to the study variables.
The primary data was collected through the quantitative survey that contained the questions that covered the respondent’s consideration and occurrence of domestic violence, the most common forms of abuse against men, as well as frequency and signs of abuse. Furthermore, they covered the aspects of the domestic violence abuse, help provided to males, the fate of relationships due to violence and abuse, as well as legal justice against the violent partners.
In reporting the results, (a) the names of the locations and the persons interviewed were concealed. (b) The data was added in Excel, (c) each question was given a coded response, and (d) data was secured. In order to calculate the relationship between the Cultural Masculinity and Social attitudes of the participant and the Male Domestic Violence, all participants were grouped into their corresponding categories of either being in Cultural Masculinity or Social Attitudes. Once grouped, correlation was used to show the relationship between each category to Domestic Violence.
Based on this analysis, two statistically significant findings emerged.The data were collected online through Survey Monkey and imported to excel and were cleaned for missing responses.
The descriptive statistics were used to describe the data with the summary charts and tables. It enabled to get an easy understanding of the problem and under investigation and the received results. As getting a representative sample is very important, the researcher used the non-random sample.
The first question aimed at revealing what people consider to be domestic violence. Typically, the respondents consider domestic violence as the deliberate and ill-motivated intimidation, assault, and other abusive behaviors by their partners. They may state that domestic violence occurs when one partner is stronger and crueler than the other. Table 1 shows that the anticipated answer to question 1 maybe that the primary definition is the deliberate assault and intimidation.
The second question aimed at getting the information about the occurrence of domestic violence. It may indicate that the respondents reveal that domestic violence occurs when their counterparts, who are in this context the female perpetrators, desire for power and control within a relationship. Hence, it may be found that more than half of participants find that domestic violence against them is related to the desire of their partners to show power, while the remaining respondents may mention control. Usually, the women seek to control financial and economic resources, property and investments, the social relations of their partners (see Table 2.).
The third question was about the most common forms of abuse against males and should help reveal that the respondents harmoniously agree that domestic violence occurs in various forms. These are emotional, sexual, and physical abuses. First, there is the emotional abuse where the women perpetrators belittle men and blame them for the arguments and violence. Also, they make unreasonable demands and isolate men from their friends and families. Second, there exist physical forms of abuse. Men are assaulted through slapping, punching, hitting, pushing, kicking, and biting.
They are also choked and burned thus getting physical injuries. Third, there is sexual abuse where men are subjected to unrealistic sexual demands. They are forced to engaged in sexual encounters or have unsafe sex. Also, women touch them indecently and hurt them during sex. Moreover, women accuse their male counterparts of multiple relationships, flirting and cheating in relationships. The survey results are represented in table 3.
The fourth question covered the frequency of abuse. One in three of the respondents may admit having experienced domestic violence against them in the past month. (see Table 4.). Therefore, the survey may conclude that domestic violence against men is very prevalent and an increasing risk.
The fifth question aimed at getting the information about the signs of domestic abuse. Relationships and forms of domestic violence differ among partners. However, there are common signs that characterize any form of domestic violence against one or both partners. The first one is broken trust. Usually, women lie to their male counterparts and tend to withhold information deemed imperative to men. Also, they are jealous and may engage in other relationships secretly. Moreover, they break promises and shared agreements. The second one is isolation. Here, women monitor or block their partners’ telephone calls. They also control their movements and isolate them from friends and family members.
The third one is disrespect where women embarrass their partners publicly. They ignore them when they talk and often interrupt their conversations. In the fourth position are threats. Women make angry gestures such as shouting down, punching walls, and threatening the children. Women also use weapons such as pieces of metal, knives, and guns to threaten their partners. Finally, it is denial. Women usually deny that the abuse are happening and accuse their men of causing the violence. The expected survey results are presented in table 5.
The sixth question helped reveal that a large proportion of the respondents may suppose that domestic violence and mistreatment against men are considered as crimes. A small percent should believe that domestic violence is not a crime. (see Table 6). Hence, the first six questions will help to get a good idea of domestic violence against males and define the most common factors that contribute to the occurrence of men’s domestic assaults. The seventh question helped to find out whether men find that violence against males should not be reported in their society. Hence, almost all of the respondents may claim that it should be reported. Anyways, the reality is sometimes different.
The eighth question obtained information about the common effects of abuse against men. It’s expected tofind that the respondents agree that the consequences of domestic violence against men are far ranging. The most common effects are physical, and they include bodily injuries such as broken bones, burns, bruises, and cuts. Other effects are emotional and comprise fear, uncertainty, worry, anxiety, instability, and confusion.
Eventually, relationships break as couples are unable to bear with each other. Domestic violence may also affect a victim’s physical and mental health and affect various aspects of life such as relationships, careers, and personal self-esteem and confidence. Recovering from the effects of domestic violence can be a long, costly, and painful journey. The survey results are presented in Table 8.
The ninth question obtained information about the suggested solutions provided by the participants regarding the help to abused men. The survey results may indicate that a majority of the interviewed men may admit that being identified as a victim of domestic abuse is embarrassing. However, it can be relieved when men unite and assist each other while standing firm against the perpetrators.
They may say that they would intervene in various ways if they encountered a fellow man being abused. Firstly, most males may claim that they would report the incident to the police through emergency and toll-free lines. Because they are more confidential than physical reporting, the men would feel freer to give all information, which would help in the investigation and eventual arrest of the perpetrators. Secondly, the men may be convinced that they would refer the victim to counselors and doctors, who would support the victim appropriately.
Counselling would assist the affected men to overcome the effects more easily and faster. Others will likely that they would refer the victim to men’s advice toll-free lines for guidance (see Table 9). The tenth survey question revealed that abused men would rather remain in an abusive relationship rather than leave. They may admit that separation with violent partners would be a lengthy and challenging process. Many respondents show worry concerning their financial security, the safety of their children, and the consequences of their actions. As such, many may choose to endure in their relationships.
The eleventh question aimed at modifying that many survey participants may admit that they are aware that the criminal and civil laws offered protection against domestic violence. However, the majority maybe reluctant to report assaults against them to the police. They may believe that reporting the abuse is shameful, and eventually, no police officer would believe them. Also, they may think that they would be treated as perpetrators and not victims. Hence, this part of the survey questions was designed to answer the question regarding the reasons for the domestic violence against men in terms of different perspectives.
Thus, the study results indicated that the respondents would provide answers to help the researcher to meet the research objectives. Also, the primary data results were consistent with the findings received from the secondary data analysis presented in the literature review. Finally, the received results proved the research hypothesis, presenting evidence that domestic violence is associated with cultural masculinity implications, social, and political attitudes.
Test of Hypothesis
The received results were analyzed through the use of the correlation statistical technique that assisted in assessing the potential relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables.Correlation analysis was used to descriptively analyze the survey participants. In order to analyze the survey results, first the input of all the data belonging to Cultural Masculinity was calculated and a correlation to Domestic Violence was done which showed that the result is significant.
That is at p < .05 r (98) = .92. p < .05 then the input of all the data belonging to Social Attitudes was calculated and correlated to Domestic violence which showed the result is significant at p < .05 r (98) = .69. p< .05 Both correlations showed a positive relation between the independent variables (Cultural Masculinity and Social Attitudes) and the dependent variable (Domestic Violence).
Interpretation of Major Results
This study did not find any statistical support for the idea that people in the general population view male domestic violence as serious as domestic violence against women. The researcher believes that this is in large part due to the small sample size. It is believed that, with a much larger sample size, results within this realm of analysis may emerge.
This study did identify a relationship between Cultural masculinity and the occurrence of domestic violence against men. It was found that men perceived several of the behaviors such as being less of a masculine figure is more dominant in more traditional and religious environments. Interpreting the answers show that these men have more difficulty seeking help in brining justice to their situations. This is important to recognize because it supports the findings of Hines and Douglas (2009), who said that under-reporting occurs within this population because men do not necessarily recognize abusive behaviors as being abusive.
The study did find a relationship between the Social attitudes and the occurrence of domestic violence against men. This relationship is important to recognize as well because it indicated that some male victims would prefer to be seen under a certain light by their peers in their social groups.
Men continue to suffer as either they may not be ready to seek legal justice, or they don’t have the option due to the legal justice rules in their country.
The research will be limited to the investigation of the men from one region. The analysis of a broader population would enable to trace the domestic violence occurrence in different regions and even countries. Also, it will consider only the attitude and thought regarding domestic violence provided by males. The views of females and their explanation of the reason why they abuse men might shed light into the problem.
The survey will be conducted in two Facebook groups. This could affect the results because of peer-pressure causing the studies to have low internal validity but the survey offers opportunity for participants to provide quantitative responses and therefore will provide space for participants to explain their answers. Although the opinions of men involved with this study are insightful, they may not be generalizable to the rest of the United States and a larger sample size will be more effective. Finally, the current study will rely on primary data.
Future Research Directions
In the future, there should be an analysis of a broader population which would provide an opportunity to find out whether there are any geographic or personal characteristics (race, ethnicity, and local traditions) that impact violence occurrence. Also, the analysis of the information provided by the females who assault males would be also beneficial as it would enable to learn whether both partners provide the same information. Finally, it would valuable to learn whether the reasons for domestic violence provided by female partners coincide with the ones provided by men.
Implications and Recommendations
It has been found that men need help and support if they experience domestic violence. Hence, it is recommended to contact any responsible body and seek help. Also, they should report violence to the police. Moreover, it is possible to unite with other males who are in the same situations and get support. Finally, it necessary to develop special interventions that would aim at providing help and assistance to assaulted males. The fear to be unaccepted or ignores prevents many males from seeking support and reporting
Summary and Conclusions
The analysis has shown that demographic peculiarities such as men’s age, the level of income and social position are positively related to the enhanced domestic violence committed against males. This helps to get a better understanding of why males are subjected to domestic violence. Moreover, it is suggested that the cultural variable of masculinity deteriorates this problem because it encourages them to conceal the acts of violence. In addition, men’s intimate partners, who are considered to be weaker, are inclined to express more violence striving to protect themselves from hegemonic masculinity (Mankowski, &Maton, 2010; Conroy, 2013; Fleming et al., 2015).
The main factors that contribute to the domestic violence against males are the desire to show power, the desire to gain control, partnership aggression, and others. Also, it has been found that demographic peculiarities and political attitude are not considered to be the reasons for this type of violence. However, masculinity implications and social attitudes are mentioned as the main reasons.
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