|Subject||Hypertension in children|
|Topic||Hypertension in children|
|Sources / references||3|
|Description / paper instructions
See the attachment and read the instructions ( The report paper must have Abstract, Introduction, finding and discussion, conclusion, recommendations and references)
What is a report?
A report is a written presentation of factual information based on an investigation or research.
Reports form the basis for solving problems or making decisions, often in the subjects of
business and the sciences. The length of reports varies; there are short memorandum (memo)
reports and long reports.
What makes an effective report?
▪ Clear, concise and accurate
▪ Easy for the audience to understand
▪ Appropriate for the audience
▪ Well organized with clear section headings
Reports follow a standardized format. This allows the reader to find the information easily
and focus on specific areas. Most reports follow the following structure, but please look at
your assignment question and marking guide carefully, as the format and terminology
required in your report may vary from this guide. If so, check with your tutor. Please
check your marking guide to determine the word limit and how marks are allocated to
A report must have:
1. Title Page
2. Abstract or Executive Summary
3. Introduction (or Terms of Reference and Procedure)
4. Findings and/or Discussion
The table below summarizes the main headings used in reports and outlines the purpose of
each section. Please note: Further headings or subheadings may be used depending on the
report’s content and are specific to the individual report.
(Not part of the word count)
Gives the title of the report, the student
name/number, the name of the person the
report is being submitted to, and the
Abstract or Executive Summary
Gives a summary of the whole report.
Outlines the report’s purpose,
methodology, findings, main conclusions
Mainly written in past tense, and
Introduction/Terms of Reference
Outlines the context, background and
purpose of the report.
Defines terms and sets limits of the
The reader/audience can easily identify
what the report is about, how information
was gathered, and why the report is
Mainly uses past tense and can be written
last – but is presented first.
Briefly states the purpose and scope of
the report. This includes who requested
the report, the main issues or problems to
be identified, the reason for undertaking
the report and the due date of the report.
Outlines the methods used to collect
information e.g. interviews,
questionnaires, observations and/or
Findings and/or Discussion
For this section, avoid using the
headings “Findings” or
“Discussion”. Instead, create
headings and sub-headings that
identify the main issues or problems.
Findings: What was found during the
research or investigation.
Gives the facts only – no interpretation by
the writer of the report.
Tables, graphs or diagrams can be used.
Must be relevant to the issues and
problems identified in the Terms of
Arranged in a logical order with headings
Discussion: You may also be required to
analyze, interpret, and evaluate the
findings. The discussion draws together
different parts of the findings and may
refer to findings of other studies and/or
Brief statements of the key findings of the
report (full explanation is given in the
Findings and/or Discussion).
Arranged so the major conclusions come
Should relate directly to the objectives set
out in the Terms of Reference or
Follow logically from the facts in the
Findings and/or Discussion. Must be
complete enough for recommendations
to be made from them.
The opinions of the writer of the report
about possible changes, or solutions to
the problems, including who should take
action, what should be done, when and
how it should be done
(Not part of the word count)
A list of the sources that are used in and
referred to in the report.
Use APA referencing style.
(Not always required)
Additional relevant information. May
include interview questions, surveys,
glossary etc. (Appendices are not included
in the word count). The major part of the report will consist of the Introduction, Findings and/or Discussion, Conclusions, and Recommendations.
Source: Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology. Report writing. Retrieved from
ing, 29 May 2013.
Further reading (resources available from TPP library)
Blicq, R. & Moretto, L. (2004). Technically-write! 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J..: Pearson
Education. Chapter 4: Short, informal reports; Chapter 5: Longer informal and semi-formal
reports; Chapter 6: Formal reports.
Daniel, C. (2012). Reader-friendly reports: a no-nonsense guide to effective writing for MBAs,
consultants and other professionals. New York: McGraw-Hill. De Luca, R. & Annals, A. (2006). Writing that works: a guide for tertiary students. 2nd ed. Auckland, N. Z.: Pearson Education New Zealand.
Emerson, L. (2009). Reports. In her Writing guidelines for business students. 4th ed. South Melbourne,
Vic.: Cengage Learning, p. 34-54.
Eunson, B. (1994). Writing and presenting reports. Sydney: Wiley.
Forsyth, P. (2010). How to write reports, and proposals. 2nd rev. ed. London: Kogan Page.
Lerner, M. (2001). Writing smart: your guide to great writing. 2nd rev. ed. Auckland, N.Z.: Random
House. Magdalinski, T. (2013). Study skills for sports studies. Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge. Chapter 7: Academic writing: how to write reports.
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (2010). 6th ed. Washing, DC: APA