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An answer booklet is provided inside this question paper. You should follow the instructions on the front cover of the answer booklet. If you need additional answer paper ask the invigilator for a continuation booklet.
Answer Question 1 and either Question 2 or Question 3.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.
Section A: Theory and methods
Answer Question 1
1 Source A
This image is a historical document showing boys from different social classes in Britain in the early part of the twentieth century. Sociologists have recently become more interested in ‘visual sociology’, which means using photographs as a tool of investigation. Personal documents are also a popular source for research.
|(a) From Source A, identify two differences between social classes.|||
|(b)||Identify two methods sociologists might use to investigate social class differences, apart from ‘personal documents’.|||
|(c)||Using Source A, describe two ways in which historical documents may not be valid.|||
|(d)||Describe two strengths of using content analysis for sociological research.|||
|(e)||Describe two strengths and two limitations of using longitudinal studies for sociological research.|||
|(f)||Explain why some sociologists believe that research should be reliable.|||
|(g)||To what extent are historical and personal documents representative?|||
Answer either Question 2 or Question 3
Section B: Culture, identity and socialisation
Since the mid-twentieth century modern industrial societies have become increasingly child-centred. Evidence from research carried out in the USA in the ‘Cost of Raising a Child’ report has shown that since 1960 the cost of raising a child has increased dramatically.
|(a)||What is meant by the term ‘child-centred’?|||
|(b)||Describe two ways childhood has changed over time.|||
|(c) Explain how socialisation is carried out within the family.|||
|(d)||Explain why sanctions are applied to individuals who do not conform.|||
|(e)||To what extent do the roles of children vary between cultures?|||
Section C: Social inequality
|(a)||What is meant by the term ‘elite’?|||
|(b)||Describe two social classes.|||
|(c)||Explain how members of the upper class are able to maintain their social position.|||
|(d)||Explain why lifestyle can be used as an indicator of an individual’s social class.|||
|(e) To what extent do barriers to social mobility remain in modern industrial societies?|||