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Advance Nursing Research – Critiquing a Qualitative Research Paper
Critiquing a Qualitative Research Study
For this assignment, you will be writing your own QUALITATIVE study critique (similar to what you did for me last week for the quantitative study critique, only this time critiquing a QUALITATIVE research study) on one of the studies provided to you.
Choose one qualitative journal article from this list:
Biezen, R., Grando, D., Mazza, D., & Brijnath, B. (2019). Visibility and transmission: complexities around promoting hand hygiene in young children: A qualitative study . BMC Public Health, 19(1), no pages.
da Silva Lins, H. N., Macêdo Paiva, L. K., Gonçalves de Souza, M., Cassimiro Lima, R. M., & Albuquerque, N. L. A. (2019). Experiences in women’s care: Doulas’ perception . Journal of Nursing UFPE / Revista de Enfermagem UFPE, 13(5), 1264–1269.
Mele, B., Goodarzi, Z., Hanson, H. M., & Holroyd-Leduc, J. (2019). Barriers and facilitators to diagnosing and managing apathy in Parkinson’s disease: A qualitative study . BMC Neurology, 19(1), no pages.
– Read your selected journal article entirely.
– Analyze the journal article and use the specific questions that are outlined in Gray, Grove, and Sutherland (2017) found on the attachment section to construct your analysis of your chosen QUALITATIVE research study. (See Word Attachment)
These are the main headers of your paper:
1- Identifying the Steps of the Qualitative Research Process
2- Determination of Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Studies
3- Evaluating a Qualitative Study
You have many questions to address in your assignment. They should be in complete sentences (i.e., bullet point responses are not acceptable!).
– APA format is required in your assignment Word document.
– Page length, excluding the title and references list, is between five and seven pages.
– Minimun Two (2) references.
– Free of plagiarism (Turnitin Assignment)
Critical Appraisal Process for Qualitative Studies
Critical appraisal of qualitative studies requires different detailed guidelines than those used when appraising a quantitative study (Marshall & Rossman, 2016; Sandelowski, 2008), because the different qualitative approaches have different standards of quality than do quantitative approaches. However, appraisals of quantitative and qualitative studies follow the same three major steps in the appraisal process (see Box 18-1) and have a common purpose—determining the credibility and trustworthiness of the findings.
The integrity of the design and methods affects the credibility and meaningfulness of qualitative findings and their usefulness in clinical practice (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015; Pickler & Butz, 2007). Burns (1989) first described the standards for rigorous qualitative research almost 30 years ago. Since that time, other criteria have been published (Cesario, Morin, & Santa-Donato, 2002; Clissett,
2008; Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015; Morse, 2012; Pickler & Butz, 2007), including one book on evaluating qualitative research (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015). The standards by which qualitative research should be appraised have been the source of considerable debate (Cohen & Crabtree, 2008; Hannes, 2011; Liamputtong, 2013; Mackey, 2012; Nelson, 2008; Roller & Lavrakas, 2015; Stige,
Malterud, & Midtgarden, 2009; Whittemore, Chase, & Mandle, 2001). Nurses critically appraising qualitative studies need three prerequisite characteristics in applying rigorous appraisal standards. Without these prerequisites, nurses may miss potential valuable contributions qualitative studies might make to the knowledge base of nursing. These required prerequisite characteristics are
addressed in the following section.
Prerequisites for Critical Appraisal of Qualitative Studies
The first prerequisite for appraising qualitative studies is an appreciation for the philosophical foundation of qualitative research (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015) (Box 18-3). Qualitative researchers design their studies to be congruent with one of a wide range of philosophies, such as phenomenology, symbolic interactionism, and hermeneutics, each of which espouses slightly different methods and approaches to gaining new knowledge (Charmaz, 2014; Corbin & Strauss, 2015; Kaestle, 1992; Marshall & Rossman, 2016; Munhall, 2012; Norlyk & Harder, 2010).
Without an appreciation for the philosophical perspective supporting the study being critically appraised, the appraiser may not appropriately apply standards of rigor that are congruent with that perspective
(Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2015). Although unique, the qualitative philosophies are similar in their views of the uniqueness of the individual and the value of the individual’s perspective. Chapter 4 contains more information on the different philosophies that are foundational to qualitative research.
Prerequisites for Critically Appraising Qualitative Research
Guided by an appreciation of qualitative philosophical perspectives, nurses appraising a qualitative study can evaluate the approach used to gather, analyze, and interpret the data (Miles et al., 2014). A basic knowledge of different qualitative approaches is as essential for appraisal of qualitative studies as knowledge of quantitative research designs is for appraising
quantitative studies (see Box 18-3; Munhall, 2012). Spending an extended time in the culture, organization, or setting that is the focus of the study is an expectation for ethnography studies but would not be expected for a phenomenological study. A researcher using a grounded theory approach is expected to analyze data to extract social processes and construct connections among emerging concepts (Charmaz, 2014).
Phenomenological researchers are expected to produce a rich, detailed description of a lived experience. Knowing these distinctions is a prerequisite to fair and objective critical appraisal of qualitative studies. What one expects to find in a qualitative research report may be the primary determinant of one’s appraisal of the quality of that study
(Morse, 2012; Sandelowski & Barroso, 2007).
Box 18-3 outlines the prerequisites of philosophical foundation, type of qualitative study, and openness to study participants that direct the implementation of the following guidelines for critically appraising qualitative studies. Appreciating philosophical perspectives and knowing qualitative approaches are superficial, however, without respect for the participant’s
perspective. Qualitative philosophers are similar in their views of the uniqueness of the individual and the value of the individuals’ perspective. That basic valuing creates an openness to hearing a participant’s story and perceiving the person’s life, in context. This openness allows qualitative researchers and nurses using the findings to perceive different truths and to
acknowledge the depth, richness, and complexity inherent in the lives of all the patients we serve.
Step I: Identifying the Steps of the Qualitative Research Process in Studies
As with quantitative research, you will start by reviewing the title and abstract. Reading the article completely is essential when critically appraising a study, because you need to use all of the information that the researchers provided. If you are unfamiliar with the qualitative approach that was used, this is a good time to look it up in Chapter 4 of this book or in other qualitative research sources listed in the references of this chapter.
Guidelines for Identifying the Steps of the Qualitative Research Process
The following questions are provided to help you identify the key elements of the study.
III. Purpose and research questions
of the study (Fawcett & Garity, 2009; Munhall, 2012)? Does the purpose have an intuitive fit with the problem?
literature are included?
qualitative study that involves human processes, such as grieving or coping, that transcend time.
searched databases outside the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for relevant studies? Research publications in other disciplines as well as literary works in the humanities may have relevance for some qualitative studies.
the study was needed?
The methods used by qualitative researchers are determined by the philosophical foundation of their work. The researcher may or may not state the philosophical stance on which the study is based. Despite this omission, you as a knowledgeable reader can recognize the philosophy through the description of the problem, formulation of the research questions, and selection of the methods to address the research questions.
VII. Sampling and sample
VIII. Data collection
Rossman, 2016; Miles et al. 2014; Munhall, 2012).
Step 2: Determining the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Study
Nurses prepared at the graduate level will compare each component of qualitative studies to the writings of qualitative experts, such as Charmaz (2014), Corbin and Strauss (2015), Creswell (2013), Maxwell (2013), Miles et al. (2014), Morse (2012), Munhall (2012), Roller and Lavrakas (2015), and Sandelowski and Barroso (2007). See also Chapters 4 and 12 in this text to review the processes considered appropriate for qualitative studies. By doing this comparison, you can determine the strengths and weaknesses of the study.
Guidelines for Determining the Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Studies
III. Literature review
the participant become distressed.
grounded theory study are presented as a description of concepts and social processes and the findings of an ethnography study are a description of a culture.
Step 3: Evaluating a Study
“The sense of rightness and feeling of comfort readers experience reading the report of a study constitute the very judgments they make about the validity or trustworthiness of the study itself” (Sandelowski & Barroso, 2007, p. xix). Critical appraisal of research is not complete without making judgments about the validity of the study, or in the case of qualitative studies, making judgments about the trustworthiness.
Balancing the strengths against the researcher- identified limitations and other weaknesses of the study, you determine the value or trustworthiness of study findings. Figure 18-1 demonstrates that trustworthiness in qualitative research involves transparency, time, truth, and transformation, leading to transferability. Transparency, time, truth, and transformation are displayed as different aspects or facets of trustworthiness.
Each of them plays a key role in whether the findings of a study are trustworthy. The arrow leading from trustworthiness indicates that trustworthy studies can potentially be transferable. Transferability of the findings to other populations is appropriate only if you determine that the findings are trustworthy. These characteristics of high quality qualitative studies were synthesized from sets of criteria that included terms such as credibility, reflexivity, confirmability, and dependability (Hannes, 2011; Lietz & Zayas, 2010; Marshall & Rossman, 2016: Maxwell, 2013; Miles et al., 2014; Morse, 2012; Munhall, 2012; Roller & Lavrakas, 2015; Stige et al., 2009). By examining transparency, truth, time, and transformation, you can make a judgment about the trustworthiness of the study findings. Although they will be described separately, the four characteristics overlap.
FIGURE 18-1 Criteria for evaluating trustworthiness of qualitative findings.
Guidelines for Evaluating a Qualitative Study
Transparency is the extent to which the researcher provided details about the study processes such as decisions made during data collection and analysis, ethical concerns that were noted, and personal perspectives that may bias the findings (Maxwell, 2013; Roller & Lavrakas, 2015). The researcher may indicate that field notes were written immediately after each interview. For examples, such field notes may include thoughts on what worked or did not work in getting participants to talk freely as well as insights from the researcher’s self-reflection of his or her response to the data.
The openness of the researcher about how personal bias was managed increases your confidence in the findings. Terms used in assessing qualitative research that have similar meanings as transparency are confirmability, dependability, and rich or thick descriptions (Liamputtong, 2013). The questions are prompts to help you evaluate transparency.
Truth as a characteristic of qualitative studies is not absolute. Your evaluation is influenced by your confidence that the findings can be confirmed by reviewing the audit trail, field notes, or transcripts (note the overlap with transparency). Strategies implemented to increase rigor, such as comparing transcripts to audio recordings, sharing the findings with participants and writing memos, also increase your confidence in the truth of the findings.
Truth also includes the conceptual and experiential fit of the findings with your view of the phenomenon. Your view of the phenomenon also may expand as you empathize with the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of the participants. Some describe this as intuition or new insights that emerge as you read the article.
In qualitative research, the researcher is the instrument (Marshall & Rossman, 2016). Time must be spent in gathering data, developing relationships with participants and key informants, interviewing additional participants based on initial data analysis, and being immersed in the data during analysis and interpretation. These activities take time. Some qualitative experts have described this study characteristic as “prolonged engagement” and “persistent observation” (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015, p. 21).
As a researcher, you need time to reflect and analyze your own responses to the data as well as thoroughly analyze the data. One indication of the amount of time spent engaged in the study is the depth and comprehensiveness of the descriptions (note the overlap with transparency).
Data analysis and interpretation transform the words of participants, the observations of the ethnographer, and the text of a document into findings (Liamputtong, 2013). Qualitative researchers who analyze the data at a superficial level will report the data as the findings, without evidence of synthesis, comparison across participants, or creation of abstract themes or categories.
To transform data, the researcher must organize, interpret, compare, and reorganize phrases and themes until the meaning of the data begins to emerge (Miles et al., 2014). Data analysis is “the heart of qualitative inquiry” (Streubert & Carpenter, 2011, p. 51). As you might expect, for transformation of the data to occur, the researcher must spend time to become focused and immersed in the data. Immersion requires persistent engagement with the data (note overlap with time).
Trustworthiness is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for transferability. Transferability is the applicability of the findings to another population or phenomenon or stated another way the “ability to do something of value with the outcomes” (Roller & Lavrakas, 2015, p. 23). To be transferable, the findings must have meaning for similar groups or settings.
The reader or user of the findings is the one who makes the determination of transferability (Streubert & Carpenter, 2011). If you have answered the previous questions and concluded the study is trustworthy, proceed with answering the following questions to determine the transferability of the findings to your practice.
implementation of the study steps also need to be examined for strengths and weaknesses.
Advance Nursing Research – Critiquing a Qualitative Research Paper
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